Amino-acizi monocarboxilici,Amino-acizi dicarboxilici referat






 

Amino-acizi naturali

Amino-acizii sunt combinatii organice care contin in molecula una sau mai multe grupe amino si una sau mai multe grupe carboxil. Dupa structura, amino-acizii se impart in doua mari categorii:

1.  Alifatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de o catena alifatica, chiar daca in molecula exista un nucleu aromatic.

2.  Aromatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de un ciclu aromatic.

Dupa asezarea relativa a grupelor functionale se deosebesc α-amino-acizi, β-amino-acizi, γ-amino-acizi, etc. Dintre amino-acizii alifatici, cei mai importanti sunt α-amino-acizi, adica acei amino-acizi care contin grupele functionale legate de acelasi atom de carbon. Se deosebesc mai multe categorii mari de α-amino-acizi alifatici:

1.  monocarboxilici

2.  dicarboxilici

3.  hidroxi-amino-acizi

4.  tioamino-acizi

5.  diamino-acizi

6.  amino-acizi heterociclici

 Denumirea    Prescurtarea  Formula

Amino-acizi  monocarboxilici

Leucina (acidul α-aminoizocapronic)   Leu       CH3-CH-CH2-CH-COOH                  |                    |                CH3                 NH2                  

Izoleucina (acidul α-amino-β-metilvalerianic)              Ileu      CH3-CH2-CH - CH-COOH                              |         |                            CH3      NH2          

 Fenilalanina (acidul α-amino-β-fenil-propionic)          Fe                           -CH2-CH-COOH                                      |                                    NH2

 Glicocolul(glicina) (acidul aminoacetic)        Gli        CH2- COOH        |       NH2     

 Alanina (acidul α-aminopropionic)     Ala       CH3-CH-COOH                   |                 NH2  

 Valina (acidul α-aminoizovalerianic)   Val        CH3-CH - CH-COOH                   |         |                 CH3       NH2   

Amino-acizi dicarboxilici

 

Acidul asparagic (acidul aminosuccinic)       Asp       HOOC-CH2-CH-COOH                                     |                                   NH2 

Acidul glutamic (acidul α-aminoglutaric)      Glu        HOOC-CH2- CH2-CH-COOH                                                |                                              NH2  

 

Hidroxi-amino-acizi

Treonina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxibutiric)     Tr         CH3-CH - CH-COOH                  |           |                 OH      NH2       





 Tirosina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxifenil-propionic)      Ti              HO                    -CH2-CH-COOH                                                |                                              NH2  

Serina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxipropionic)      Ser         CH2 - CH-COOH        |         |       OH     NH2   

Tio-amino-acizi

Cistina (acidul di[α-amino-β-tiopropionic] )     Ci-S  Ci-S    HOOC-CH-CH2-S-S-- CH2-CH-COOH                       |                                           |                  NH2                                     NH2   

 Metionina (acidul α-amino-γ-metiltiobutiric) Met  CH2- CH2-CH-COOH    |                     |      S -- CH3          NH2          

Cisteina (acidul α-amino-β-tiopropionic)         Cis         CH2 - CH-COOH        |          |       SH      NH2   

 

Diamino-acizi

Ornitina (acidul α, δ-diaminovalerianic)          Or        CH2- CH2-CH2-CH-COOH      |                                |    NH2                                        NH2

Lisina (acidul α, ε-diaminocapronic)    Lis       CH2- CH2-CH2-CH2-CH-COOH     |                                            |   NH2                                                         NH2   

Amino-acizi heterociclici

 Prolina (acidul pirolidin-α-carboxilic)   Pro                           H2C- CH2                              |         |                          H2C      CH-COOH                                     /                                 NH           

 Hidroxiprolina (acidul β-hidroxipirolidin-α-carboxilic)            Hipro                      HO-HC - CH2                                |           |                         H2C      CH-COOH                                    /                                NH      

 Histidina (acidul α-amino-β-imidazolil-(4)-propionic) (imidazolil-(4)-alanina)   His          N - C - CH2- CH-COOH          ||       ||                        |        HC     CH                NH2                  /              NH    

 Triptofanul (acidul α-amino-β-indolil-(3)-propionic) (indolil-(3)-alanina)          Tri                                                                - CH2- CH-COOH                                              |                                            NH2          










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