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Verbul



Lectia 6: Verbul. Notiuni introductive.

Verbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr-o propozitie.
Ex.: I am a student.
The students
passed all their courses.

6.1. Cele 4 forme verbale

Terminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista 4 forme verbale de baza. Limba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare, spre deosebire de limba romana, unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu ajutorul desinentelor. De remarcat ca in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor.

Cele 4 forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza:

Numele verbului
Forma de baza
Forma de trecut
Participiul prezent
Participiul trecut
to work
I can work.
I work.
I worked.
I am working.
I have worked.
to write
I can write.
I write.
I wroted.
I am writing.
I have written.

Cele mai frecvent folosite verbe neregulate

Urmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme verbale reprezentative:

  • Forma de baza, adica infinitivul: to fly 42874ibq14fup1c

  • Persoana III singular a timpului prezent: he flies

  • Persoana III singular a trecutului: he flew

  • Participiul trecut: he has flown

Base Form
Present Third Person
Past Third Person
Past Participle
arise
be
bear
begin
bite
blow
break
bring
buy
catch
choose
come
creep
dive
do
drag
draw
dream
drink
drive
drown
eat
fall
fight
fly
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
hide
know
lay
lead
lie
light
lose
prove
ride
ring
rise
run
see
seek
set
shake
sing
sink
sit
speak
spring
steal
sting
strike
swear
swim
swing
take
tear
throw
uses
wake
wear
write
arises
is
bears
begins
bites
blows
breaks
brings
buys
catches
chooses
comes
creeps
dives
does
drags
draws
dreams
drinks
drives
drowns
eats
falls
fights
flies
forgets
forgives
freezes
gets
gives
goes
grows
hangs
hides
knows
lays
leads
lies
lights
loses
proves
rides
rings
rises
runs
sees
seeks
sets
shakes
sings
sinks
sits
speaks
springs
steals
stings
strikes
swears
swims
swings
takes
tears
throws
used
wakes
wears
writes
arose
was/were
bore
began
bit
blew
broke
brought
bought
caught
chose
came
crept
dived/dove
did
dragged
drew
dreamed/dreamt
drank
drove
drowned
ate
fell
fought
flew
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung
hid
knew
laid
led
lay
lit
lost
proved
rode
rang
rose
ran
saw
sought
set
shook
sang
sank
sat
spoke
sprang
stole
stung
struck
swore
swam
swung
took
tore
threw
used
woke/waked
wore
wrote
arisen
been
borne
begun
bitten/bit
blown
broken
brought
bought
caught
chosen
come
crept
dived
done
dragged
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
drowned
eaten
fallen
fought
flown
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got/gotten
given
gone
grown
hung
hidden
known
laid
led
lain
lit
lost
proved/proven
ridden
rung
risen
run
seen
sought
set
shaken
sung
sunk
sat
spoken
sprung
stolen
stung
struck
sworn
swum
swung
taken
torn
thrown
used
woken/waked/woke
worn
written

6.2. Verbele auxiliare - be, have, do

Verbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale, a formelor negative si interogative.
Ex.: He is planning to get married soon.
I haven't seen Peter since last night.
bu874i2414fuup

Be, ca auxiliar, este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu, in combinatie cu participiul prezent.
Ex.: He is living in Germany.

Be, impreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva
Ex.: These cars are made in Japan.

Have in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte.
Ex.: I have changed my mind.
I wish you had met Guy.

Prezentul perfect continuu, trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele auxiliare be si have:
Ex.: He has been working very hard recently.
She did not know how long she had been luing there.

Be si have se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii negative si interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte.
Ex.: He isn't going.
Hasn't she seen it yet?

Auxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului sau trecutului simplu.
Ex.: He doesn't think he can come to the party.
Do you like her new haircut?

Auxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have.
Ex.: He didn't do his homework.
He doesn't have any money.

In propozitii afirmative, do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau contrast.
Ex.: I do feel sorry for Roger.

 
 
Nu se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be.
Singura exceptie este imperativul:
Don't be stupid!
Do be a god boy and sit still!

6.3. Modul

Modul verbal se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un vorbitor fata de continutul mesajului exprimat.

Modul indicativ, prezent in majoritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina, se foloseste pentru a face o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare.

Modul imperativ se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, directive, sugestii cu caracter pronuntat.
Ex.: Get your homework done before you watch television tonight.
Please include cash payment with your order form. Get out of town!

Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. Pronumele you (singular sau plural) este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative. Majoritatea propozitiilor imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana II.
Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la persoana I
Ex.: Let's (or Let us) work on these things together.

Modul subjonctiv se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele scopuri:

  1. expresia unei dorinte;

  2. fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala

  3. fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii ireale

  4. fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri, sugestii, solicitari.

Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here.
If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player.
We would have passed if we had studied harder.
He acted as if he were guilty.
I requested that he be present at the hearing.

Subjonctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte limbi, de exemplu in franceza sau spaniola. In multe situatii care in alte limbi cer subjonctivul, in limba engleza sunt folosite formele numeroaselor verbe auxiliarele.

6.4. Verbele frazale

O alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. Verbele frazale sunt formate dintr-un verb si un alt cuvant, de obicei o prepozitie. Ele au luat nastere in vorbirea de zi cu zi.

Verbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere si pot avea mai multe astfel de intelesuri, de multe ori diferite. Te exemplu, to come out are 18 intelesuri diferite!

Verbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi entitati.
Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand pat, stand down, stand against, stand for.

Mai mult, verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul respectiv
Ex.: Fill this out! Fill out this form. (a completa un formular)
Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon. (a jefui)
You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. (a omite)
The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (a examina)

O lista sumara a celor mai folosite verbe frazale, insotite de o scurta explicatie si un exemplu, poate fi gasita la: http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrasals.htm.

 
 
1. Completeaza cu be sau have la formele verbale potrivite:
Swans ___ large birds - almost 4 feet tall. They ___ log necks. Some swans ___ very tame. They often come near people for food. Females usually ____ about six babies which are called cygnets. Cygnets ___ grey in colour and ___ very small wings but when they are fully grown they ___ large and strong wings and ___ white in colour. Swans can live to be 40.
2. Completeaza verbele frazale in propozitiile de mai jos:
hung up, came to, catch on, eat out, put on, talk over, get by, turned down, find out, show up
He tried to ____ his jacket before his tie was tied.
My family was able to ____on very little money when I was young.
The detective vowed to ____ who the murderer was before the case went to trial.
Whenever we get tired of cooking, we ___ at our favorite Italian restaurant.
Carlos ____ on his sister because he was so tired of listening to her whining on the phone.
Tashonda was astonished that she was ___ for the counselor's position.
The committee promised that the celebrity would ______ at the big event.
When he ___, his wallet and bike were nowhere to be found.
Professor Farbman promised to ___ the exam after she returned the results.
Terri was able to ___ to the most complex problems in calculus before anyone else.


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