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The Adjective - Types of adjectives, Position of adjectives, Comparison of adjectives, Adjective patterns



The Adjective

 

Adjectives describe the qualities of people,things,places etc.

I. Types of adjectives: 53658ehd99sls9t

1.

Adjective proper: good,blue,alive.

Noun converted into an adjective because placed before another noun: (a five-) room (house), (a ten-) year (old boy). hl658e3599slls

Verb in the 3rd form,used as an adjective: (a) worried (man),

(his) bored (air), (her) confused (mind).

Compound adjective: goog-looking, long-lasting, open-minded, well-dressed.

-Ing form of verb used as an adjective: (an) amusing (fellow), (the) governing (authorities).

2. You can emphasize your feelings about something that you mention by using emphasizing adjectives:

pure bliss… a raving lunatic…

a complete idiot… the very thing…

absolute rubbish… …at the very beginning/end of …

in utter despair… in entire agreement with…

a total failure… outright best-seller…

a perfect success… a positive delight to…

a crashing bore… true/genuine pleasure to…

3. Attributive and predicative adjectives:

Most adjectives can be used both attributively (in front of the noun) and predicatively (after the verb BE, SEEM, LOOK etc).

e.g. She has read an interesting story. The story is interesting.

But there are some adjectives that can be used only in one way.

Attributive adjectives:
Predicative adjectives:
atomic
east/west/south/north
eastern/wetern/southern/…
indoor/outdoor
maximum
nationwide
occasional
supplementary
woolen
etc.
 
 
 
 
afraid
alive
alone
apart
aware
glad
ill
likely
ready
safe
sorry
sure
unable
etc.

II. Position of adjectives:

1. before a noun: young woman.

2. after the verb BE, BECOME, SEEM, STAY:

Your ideas are interesting.

Books are becoming expensive.

She looks happy.

The weather wills stay dry.

3. with some verbs after the object: My sister keeps her room tidy.

4. the+adj.=Romanian noun in the plural: the young=tinerii

the rich=bogatii

the English=englezii

5. after a noun (certain phrases): the people present/knight errant/Court Martial/Poet Laureate etc.

Order of adjectives placed before a noun:

determiner
opinion
size
shape
age
color
origin
material
purpose/ type
noun
at/the/two
nice
big
round
old
blue
French
glass
fruit
bowl

III. Comparison of adjectives:

 
Positive:
Comparative:
Superlative:
-er,-est
-one syllable adj.
-two syllable adj.
-ending in –y
Peter is tall.
 
Pam is lucky.
 
Peter is taller than Jack.
Pam is lukier than Lori.
Peter is the tallest in the group.
Pam is the luckiest girl I know.
more,the most
less,the least
-long adj.
This is difficult.
 
This is more/less difficult than I thought.
This is the most/ least difficult thing to be done.

N.B. When comparing two items the COMPARATIVE is used:

e.g. Sam is twenty, while Jimmy is 13.

Sam is the older of the two.

Some long adjectives can be take either –er, -est or more, the most:

able common noble simple

clever narrow simple unkind

gentle handsome pleasant polite

e.g. commoner/more common, the commonest/the most common.

Irregular forms:

good-better-best bad-worse-worst little-less-least

far-farther-farthest ill-worse-worst much-more-most

further-furthest old-elder-eldest many-more-most

To show that a quality changes, use –er and –est/more and more/less and less: We are luckier and luckier.

She is better and better.

They speak more and more fluently.

He is less and less stubborn.

IV. Adjective patterns:

Some adjectives are followed by certain prepositions.

preposition:
examples of adjectives:
about
angry,annoyed,anxious,certain,confideny,excited,happy,pleased,
right,sorry,upset,nervous.
at
amazed,angry,annoyed,bad,excellent,good,hopeless,lucky,skilled,
skilful,surprised,useless.
by
amused,bored,impressed,shocked,surpised.
for
famous,late,ready,sorry,responsible,suitable.
from
absent,different,safe,tired.
in
interested,involved.
on
keen,reliant.
of
afraid,ashamed,aware,capable,certain,confident,critical,envious, fond,full,guilty,incapable,jealous,kind,nice,proud,scared,short,
stupid,sure,suspicious,terrified,tired,typical.
to
accustomed,engaged,generous,inferior,kind,married,polite,
possible,rude,superior,similar.
towards
friendly,patronizing.
with
angry,annoyed,bored,busy,content,crowded,delighted,disappointed,
familiar,friendy,furiuos,happy,occupied,pleased,satisfied.

Plesoiu Madalina

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