Lectia 2: Articolul
Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete inteles intr-o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie insotit de un determinant substantival. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:
Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba in functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza in fata substantivului determinat. 55918flg33htx4x
2.1. Articolul hotarat (the)
Articolul hotarat se foloseste:
Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat in contextul respectiv
Ex.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.
Atunci cand atat vorbitorul cat si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de substantiv, desi nu a mai fost mentionat in context.
Ex.: - Where's the bathroom? - It's on the first floor.
In propozitii sau fraze in care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte:
Ex.: The man we met yesterday at the bus station. The girl in red is her neighbour. lt918f5533httx
Referitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice:
Ex.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars
Ann is in the garden (the garden of this house).
Inaintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first, second, thirds, etc si only:
Ex.: the best day, the first week, the last chapter, the only way
Inaintea unor adjective pentru a te referi in general la un grup de oameni care au in comun o anumita insusire (sunt frumosi, tineri, batrani, japonezi, etc):
Ex.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the Japanese, the British
Nume de locuri geografice, oceane, rauri, mari, deserturi, munti, regiuni:
Ex.: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic
Se foloseste inaintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii celebre, hoteluri, yiare, orchestre, grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la plural,etc):
Ex.: the National Gallery, the Royal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the Beatles, the Spice Girls, the Guardian, the Telegraph, the Daily, the Titanic, the Tower of London, the House of Parliament, the Smiths
Decade, secole, grupe de ani:
Ex.: My parents went to University in the seventies.
2.2. Articolul nehotarat (a / an)
Se foloseste a inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o consoana si an inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u)
Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an opera
An inainte de un h mut - an hour, an honour.
A inainte de u sau eu atunci cand se pronunta ca you: a european, a university, a unit
Articolul nehotarat se foloseste:
Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:
Ex.: Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job.
Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:
cu nume de profesii: John is an engineer. Mary is training to be a nurse.
cu nationalitati si religii: John is an Englishman. Kate is a Catholic.
cu instrumente muzicale: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
cu numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday.
pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: The mouse had a tiny nose. It was a very strange car
cu substantice la singular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: What a bluff! He is such a prodigious young man.
atunci cand te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana, echivaleaza cu one: I'd like an orange and two lemons please. The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.
Retineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.
2.3. a / an si one
Atunci cand numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru singular:
Ex.: a / one pound, a / one million pouds
You can take an/ one hour for lunch.
Dar a/an si one nu inseamna intotdeauna acelasi lucru:
Ex.: A box is no good. (We need a crate not a box).
One box is no good, we need two boxes.
2.4. Articolul zero
Nu se foloseste articol in urmatoarele cazuri:
Cu nume de tari (la singular)
Ex.: Germany is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Argentina.
(Insa: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
Cu numele limbilor:
Ex.: French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.
Cu numele meselor:
Ex.: Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
Cu numele persoanelor (la singular):
Ex.: John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.
(Insa: We're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
Cu titluri si nume:
Ex.: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
(Insa: the Queen of England, the Pope.)
Dupa cazul posesiv format cu 's:
Ex.: His sister's car.
Cu numele profesiilor:
Ex.: Engineering is a useful career.
He'll probably go into medicine.
Cu nume de magazine:
Ex.: I'll get the card at Smith's.
Can you go to Boots for me?
Ex.: 1948 was a wonderful year.
Do you remember 1995?
Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns):
Ex.: Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive.
Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
Ex.: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
She lives near Lake Windermere.
Have you visited Long Island?
Cu majoritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mijloacele de transport si aeroporturi:
Ex.: Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
Can you direct me to Bond Street?
She lives in Florence.
They're flying from Heathrow.
In unele expresii invariabile:
Ex.: by car, at school, at work, at University, in church, in prison, in bed, by train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air (in broadcasting)
1. Completeaza cu a sau an acolo unde este cazul:
Bill is ____ author. He writes ___ travel books. He makes ____ lot of money. We had ____ lunch with him yesterday. It was ____ excellent lunch. The meal cost him ____ hundred and ____ fifty pounds. What ____ expensive restaurant! He gave the waiter ____ twenty pounds. That was ____ good tip.
2. Alege a sau the:
One day we set out to climb (…) a/the highest hill in the area. The campers in (…) a/the next tent lent us their map. They told us to follow one of (…) a/the routes marked on (…) a/the map. But Tom said thet he was sure that there was (…) a/the better way. (…) A/the way that we chose was so steep that we had to stop for (…) a/the long rest on the way up. But we got to (…) a/the top in (…) a/the end.
3. Completeaza cu the acolo unde este cazul:
We have ____ soup for ____supper. After ____ meal Tom and I play ____ chess. Bill prefers ____ cards. ____ game he likes best is bridge. He says that ____ chess requires ____ patience and he is not patient. He also says that ____life is too short to waste in this way.