PREPOZITIA referat



PREPOZITIA

Este de trei feluri: - de loc

- de miscare

- de timp

1. Prepozitia de loc 11127pmp58dxd3r

Se foloseste cu verbe statice: to be/to stay/to exist/to stand, etc.

in – in, la, pentru spatii mari Ex: I live in Bucharest.

at – in, la, pentru spatii reduse Ex: I live at Sinaia.

withinin cadrul, pentru suprafete restranse Ex: A lot of words have been said within these walls. mx127p1158dxxd



against – rezemat Ex: The man is against the wall.

– impotriva Ex: We are against them.

on – pe (pozitia pe o suprafata) Ex: The book is on the table.

Pentru apropiere:

  • imediata: next to, close to, beside

  • apropiere: near, near by, by

Pozitia pe verticala:

over – deasupra

under – dedesubt (fara raportare la un punct fix)

above – deasupra

below – dedesubt (cu raportare la un punct fix)

Ex: above zero, below the water level

underneath – punctul cel mai de jos

on top of – punctul cel mai de sus (prin atingere)

Ex: The green book is underneath. (este cea mai de jos carte)

Pozitia pe orizontala:

in front of – in fata

behind – in spate (pentru lucruri pentru a indica pozitia)

Ex: The tree is in front of the house.

after – dupa

before – inainte (pentru oameni, pentru a indica ordinea)

Ex: I’m before you at the queue.

(to queue = a se aseza la coada)

between – intre 2

among – printre (mai mult de 2)

2. Prepozitia de miscare

 

se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare

to – la, catre (pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go to school.

towards – la, catre (nu pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go towards office.

Into – in (pp patrunderea intr-un spatiu) Ex: Put the bag into the house.

Onto – pe (pp miscarea pe o suprafata orizontala;se pune “on”daca sta)The cat is running onto the floor.

along – de-a lungul (pp miscarea pe o suprafata plana si lunga) Ex: I’m walking along the beech.

through – prin (pp traversare si patrundere) Ex: I walk through the park.

acrosstraversare (nu si patrundere) Ex: I run across the street.

about – prin (arata o miscare nedefinita) Ex: I walk about town (prin oras, fara un tel precis)

around – in jurul (pp o miscare circulara) Ex: I dance around the fire.

out of – pp iesirea dintr-un volum Ex: Get out of my house.

off – pp desprinderea de o suprafata Ex: The plane takes off.

up-and-down – in sus si in jos pe un plan vertical Ex: The children run up-and-down the stairs.

from – de la, de pe, din Ex: Take it from my bag.

pastlanga (pp apropierea imediata prin miscare)

Ex: I drive past the university (si nu near the university!, pt ca sunt in miscare)

3. Prepozitia de timp

in – pentru ani, lunile anului, anotimpuri, perioade ale vietii (in my childhood),

in anumite momente ale zilei (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening)

at – pentru ora (at 10 o’clock), in anumite momente ale zilei (at noon, at midday, at midnight, at dusk), pentru varsta (at the age of 15), mesele zilei (at lunch time), cu week-end (at the week-end) si in sarbatori (at Christmas)



on – cu zilele saptamanii (on Sunday), data (on the 15th of June) si sarbatorile (on Christmas day – cand este vorba de ziua de Craciun, nu de toata perioada)

before si after – inainte si dupa, cu raportare la un punct fix

by – nu mai tarziu de Ex: Try to arrive by ten.

during – in timpul

overin timpul, dar pe perioade scurte Ex: Read it over the week-end.

throughout / althrough – de-a lungul, dar pe o prioada lunga de timp Ex: Althrough the years.

Diferentiere intre prepozitii

in time on time

cu ceva timp inainte la fix

in the end at the end

finally, in cele din urma la capatul (urmeaza un substantiv)

in with

pentru ceva cu care esti imbracat pentru o trasatura fizica

Ex: A woman in trousers. A woman with long hair.

as like

pentru rol, functie, pozitie pentru comparatie

Ex: I work as a teacher. Ex: I talk like a teacher.

(I am a teacher) (I am an engineer)

on about

in legatura cu, folosit academic despre

Ex: Give me a book on Economics. Ex: Let’s talk about sex.

due to owing to

datorita (doar dupa “to be”) datorita (restul inafara de “to be”)

Ex: My success is due to her. Ex: Owing to my work I succeeded.

over across

pp traversarea peste un obstacol traversare pe jos

Ex: I’m over the ocean. (cu avionul) Ex: I’m across the ocean. (cu barca)

despite in spite of

dupa urmeaza CD (niciodata sub.) dupa urmeaza genitiv

Ex: Despite the bad weather I left. Ex: In spite of the bad weather I left.

made of – recunosc materialul Ex: made of gold

made from – deduc ceva elemente Ex: the cake is made from cocoa

made with – recunosc 1 element Ex: a chocolate made with milk (dar laptele nu este elementul de baza)

in – in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening

at – at dawn, at midnight

onpentru orice moment al zilei atunci cand exista un atribut

Ex: In the morning dar On a fine day

At night dar On a starry night

 

Pentru mijloace de locomotie

by – cu orice mijloc de transport, daca nu este determinat

Ex: by car, by bus, by plane (dar on foot!)

in – pentru autovehicule, daca sunt determinate

Ex: in my father’s car, in the car that you bought me

on – pentru toate celelalte in afara de autovehicule daca sunt determinate

Ex: on my father’s plane, on the tube/subway/underground









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