Adjectivul referat



Lectia 3: Adjectivul

3.1. Forma adjectivului

Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu isi schimba forma in functie de gen sau numar.
Ex.: A hot patato, some hot patatoes.

Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:
Ex.: A very hot patato, some really hot patatoes.

3.2. Pozitia adjectivului

  • De obicei adjectivul se aseaza in fata substantivului determinat:
    Ex.: A good movie.



  • Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
    Ex.: The movie is good.
    You seem
    upset.
    This cheese tastes
    different.

  • Dupa substantiv in expresii fixe:
    Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial 41289tlz46cji4s

  • Cateva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai in fata substantivului determinat:
    Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting.
    That
    poor woman was living in a garage.

  • Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annozed, ill, well, sorry
    Ex.: He's asleep.
    I'm
    alone.

  • Unele adjective isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate in fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.
    Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter)
    They had an
    involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)
    I am a
    concerned mother. (worried, anxious)
    The list of the students
    present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)
    The
    present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)

3.3. Functiile adjectivului

Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima: lj289t1446cjji

  • Sentimente sau calitati:
    Ex.: They make an original couple.
    She is a
    single mother.

  • Nationalitatea sau originea:
    Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinian and his father is Canadian.
    I bought him a
    Swiss watch for Christmas.

  • Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
    Ex.: The table is long.
    The
    steel tray was a gift.

  • Varsta:
    Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.
    He is still very
    young, almost a boy.

  • Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:
    Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.
    That boy is too
    tall.

  • Culoarea:
    Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.

  • Materie / material:
    Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt.
    It was a
    silver tray, not a steel tray.

  • Forma:
    Ex.: A rectangular envelope.
    A
    round table.

  • Judecati, pareri sau opinii:
    Ex.: Grammar is fascinating.
    The show was
    entertaining.

3.4. Ordinea adjectivelor

Atunci cand se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material

Value/opinion
delicious, lovely, charming
Size
small, huge, tiny
Age/Temperature
old, hot, young, little
Shape
round, square, rectangular
Colour
red, blonde, black
Origin
Swedish, Victorian, Chinese
Material
plastic, wooden, silver

Exemple:
a green round plastic bucket
an
elegant little French clock
a
small round wooden table

3.5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor

3.5.1. Formarea comparativului si superlativului

Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (inalt), comparativ (mai inalt), superlativ (cel mai inalt). In limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:

Numar de silabe (Pozitiv)
Comparativ
Superlativ
o silaba
+ -er
+ -est
tall
taller
tallest
Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala:
fat
fatter
fattest
big
bigger
biggest
sad
sadder
saddest
doua silabe
+ -er SAU more + adj
+ -est SAU most + adj
+ Adjectivele terminate in: -y, -ly, -ow
+ Adjectivele terminate in: -le, -er sau -ure
+ Urmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet
happy
happier/ more happy
happiest/ most happy
yellow
yellower/ more yellow
yellowest/ most yellow
simple
simpler/ more simple
simplest/ most simple
tender
tenderer/ more tender
tenderest/ most tender
Daca nu esti sigur, foloseste more + adj SAU most + adj.
Nota: Adjectivele terminate in -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor inlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa:
busy
busier
busiest
trei sau mai multe silabe
more + adj
most + adj
important
more important
most important
expensive
more expensive
most expensive

Exemple:
a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest.
b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest.
c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable.



3.5.2. Forme neregulate

Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:

Pozitiv
Comparativ
Superlativ
good
better
best
bad
worse
worst
little
less
least
old
older / elder
oldest / eldest
much / many
more
most
far
further / farther
furthest / farthest

3.5.3. Comparatia adjectivelor

  • the + superlative
    Ex.: This is the oldest theater in London.

  • comparative + than - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte:
    Ex.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do.
    Thailand is sunnier than Norway.
    Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.

  • as + adjective + as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, intre care nu exista diferente:
    Ex.: Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.
    Ramona is as happy as Raphael.
    A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.

  • not as + adjective + as - putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as ...as:
    Ex.: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest.
    Norway is not as sunny as Thailand

 
1. Scrie comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor adjective: happy, brave, busy, clever, dry, bad, fat, many, beautiful, difficult, exciting, far, good.
2. Completeaza cu as, the sau than, dupa caz:
- What about this one?
- It's better ____ the one we saw in Harrods.
- It's bigger ____ the one in our local shop.
- But it's more expensive ____ the others.
- Do we want one ____ big ___ that?
- Yes, ____ bigger, ____ better. Let's buy it. It's ____ best we've seen so far.
3. Completeaza spatiile libere cu forma de comparativ sau superlativ a adjectivelor din paranteza (adauga si than acolo unde este cazul):
The 8 o'clock train is much (fast) ____ the 7.30 one. Of course it is (crowded) _____ the 7.30 train and the tickets are (expensive) _____. You get (cheap) _____ fares before 8 o'clock. Still, it's the (quick) _____ way of getting to Bath, unless you want to fly, and getting to the airport is much (difficult) ____ getting to the station.









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