His real name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and he got the name 'Mahatma' from the indians, it means 'Big Soul'. Gandhi lives from 1869 to 1948. Gandhi is well-known because of the independence movement of India and he is considered as an advocate of the non-violent resistance to the accomplishment political goal. On second October 1869 Mohandas was born in today's Gujarat. He studied law and became an attorney in 1891. 1892 he went as the attorney of an Indian company to Durban in the British colony "Natal" in South Africa. When he saw that civil liberties and political rights were refused there, he started the fight for the basic rights of the Indians.
The passive resistance:
For twenty years, Gandhi stayed there and he came in a prison several times. The "Natal Indian Congress" was founded by Gandhi in 1894 who organised the resistance of the immigrants against the discriminative laws of races. Mohandas was influenced by Lew Tolstoj and Henry David Thoreau, so he displayed politics for a non-violence fight of the passive resistance and refusal cooperation with the authorities. But Gandhi found the words "passive resistance" unsuitable, so he named it "Satyagraha".
During a war, Gandhi built an ambulance corps for the British army and lead an unity of the Red Cross. After the war, he continued his campaign for the rights of Indians. Mohandas founded an agricultural co-operative for the Indians in 1910 - the Tolstoj-Farm. In 1914, the government abolished the head-tax in South Africa.
Then in that year Mahatma returned to India and received the leadership in the fight of the Indians for the self-administration. After the world war I, he included the passive resistance against Great Britain. When the British parliament in 1919 said good bye to the Rowlatt Acts, the Satyagraha-movement spread out over whole India. Gandhi appealed to a compaign of the Asahayaga. Therefore all Indians blocked the streets, the higher court of law boycotted and children were taken from the public schools. They refused to take the streets off, as well after the police has been violent. The consequence was, that Mahatma was imprisoned but soon he had to been release.
Centrally was the economic independence and also the consequence of Gandhi's movement Swaraj. He called to the boycott of the whole Indian goods and firms and in the same times he instigated the traditional spinning and weaving at home, to make Indian independent from the textile industry and to remove the poverty. As an symbol, he took a spin-wheel to propagate the return to the simple life in the village and for the renewal of the craft at home.
Mahatma led a life in the sign of a prayer, he went on a fast and he meditated. Because he refused the material ownership, he carried a loincloth and the cloth of the lowest caste. Besides he ate simple and strict vegetarian.
In 1921 the "Indien National Congress" transferred the powers of attorney to Gandhi. Then arm rioting broke out against the British control and Gandhi had to confess the fail of his campaign - the campaign was finished. The British government arrested him for 6 years.
After his early dismissal in 1924, Gandhi retreated of the politic. He consecrated on a campaign of the social acceptance. 1930, after Great Britain refused to respect Indian with the standing of an dominion, a rebellion was called again by Gandhi. He requested the people to refuse the payment of the salt-tax. According to the protest, Mahatma was imprisoned again but he was free 1931. He broke off the protest, toward the Britain dealt with the demands. In the same year, he represented the India national congress but he didn't accomplished his demands.
The fight against the caste system:
In 1932 Mohandas called again to civil disobedience again the Britain. The consequence was the prison. There. He went to protest the British constitution politics. That performed pressure on the authorities . Because they had to fear an revolution if Mahatma died in the prison. Gandhi was the leader of a movement for the removal of the social and economical unfair caste-system.
1934 Mohandas withdrawned from the chair of the Indian national congress, the he travelled through whole India. In 1935 the Britain admitted the right for the limited administration. Gandhi was interest at the actually political happening with to went on a fast. With that action he would force the ruler of the state to the task his autocratic control. His demanded were indulged.
At the outbreak of the word war II , the congress party and Gandhi withdrawned a clear formulation of the war aims and consequences for India. Because of the unsatisfactory answer from the Britain, the party decided to not support Great Britain if India didn't get the complete independence. The Britain offered compromise but India reflected. 1942 Gandhi was arrested however because of his bad health condition he was free two years later.
In 1944 the British government agreed but with one requirement: the Muslim and the congress party enclosed their disagreements. Gandhi was strict again a division of India, he agreed with the hope that the fulfilment of the requirement of the Muslim to an own state help for the conservation of the freedom. So produced in 1947 the both independence states India and Pakistan.
At 30. January 1948 Gandhi was assassinated by an extremist.
The Indian worshiped him like a saint because of this today is a monument of Gandhi and his birthday a public holiday.
Ultimele referate adaugate
- Opere romantice - autori si opere reprezentative Gioacchino Rossini, Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner
- Mihai beniuc - „poezii"
- Mihai eminescu - student la berlin
- Mircea Eliade - Mioara Nazdravana (mioriţa)
- Chirita in provintie de Vasile Alecsandri -expunerea subiectului
- Dragoste de viata de Jack London
|Ion Luca Caragiale
- Triumful talentului… (reproducere) de Ion Luca Caragiale
- Fantasticul in proza lui Mircea Eliade - La tiganci
- „Personalitate creatoare” si „figura a spiritului creator” eminescian