The EU was founded in 1945, at the end of the “Second World War”.
European empires were falling apart
The countries of
The governments of
In 1957 they signed the Treaty of Rome, which set up the European Economic Community (EEC), now known as the European Union.
The EU has 25 member states, 10 of them since 2004, these are:
The main aims of the EU are the four freedoms, which are
Free movement of capital
Free movement of people
Free movement of labour
Further the member states agreed to do the following:
Removal of all trade barriers between member countries
All EU members have the same external tariffs
Co-ordination and common policies in the fields of agriculture, defence policy, economic policies, foreign trade, social affairs, etc.
In spring 1998 the European Council decides which member states formed part of the currency union (Euro). All member states have to comply with the convergence criteria which were set out in the Treaty of Maastricht. The five points were inflation, interest rates, national budget deficit, national debt and exchange rate. 2002 the single currency was introduced. It shall become a world currency.
In February 1992 twelve member states signed the Treaty of Maastricht (treaty of economic, monetary and political union). The commitment of the Treaty of Maastricht was for example:
To create a European Central Bank
To adopt a single currency
To adopt a joint foreign and security policy
To promise more money to
The EU institutions are:
The European Commission
The European Parliament
The Council of Minister
The Court of Justice
The European Council
The Economic and Social Committee
The referendum for the entry of
The agreement declined because only some prices for basic farm commodities got reduced (as promised by the Austrian politicians), prices on most other goods remained at their old level or rose. The Austrian population is disappointed by the fact that many consumer goods are cheaper in neighbouring EU countries so they travel regularly to foreign towns.
Achievements and Problems
Each member country stopped charging taxes on imported goods which helped to create:
A large home market,
a wider range of goods, and
a better standard of living for community citizens.
On the other hand if you join something late you have to wait longer to see the advantages.
Another achievement is freedom of work. All citizens of the European Union are free to seek jobs in any Community country.
But critics maintain that
The Schengen agreement makes travelling faster inside Schengenland, travellers do not have to show their passports when crossing frontiers.
But traffic on Austrian motorways has increased. International crime, terrorism, drugs and illegal immigration could be increasing in this frontier-free zone.
Therefore tougher checks on travellers arriving from outside have been introduced.
A big bloc can exert influence on world affairs, because one country is too small and insignificant to stand alone.
EU-memberships could bring about the loss of national identity and
culture. The smaller countries might be dominated by the big fish:
The Community with a market of 340 million people offers Austrian business major opportunities.
But the money is not spent in vain. The Community helps regions and groups with economic difficulties.
Effects of enlargement
The eight East European governments have
laboured hard to adopt a
Ultimele referate adaugate
- Mihai beniuc - „poezii"
- Mihai eminescu - student la berlin
- Mircea Eliade - Mioara Nazdravana (mioriţa)
- Chirita in provintie de Vasile Alecsandri -expunerea subiectului
- Dragoste de viata de Jack London
|Ion Luca Caragiale
- Triumful talentului… (reproducere) de Ion Luca Caragiale
- Fantasticul in proza lui Mircea Eliade - La tiganci
- „Personalitate creatoare” si „figura a spiritului creator” eminescian
- Enigma Otiliei de George Calinescu - geneza, subiectul si tema romanului
- Arta literara in romanul Ion, - Liviu Rebreanu