Angola referat

Angola, formerly Portuguese West Africa, officially Republic of Angola, independent state in southwestern Africa. Angola is bounded on the north and east by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire), on the east by Zambia, on the south by Namibia, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. A small exclave, Cabinda, is located some 30 km (about 20 mi) to the north and is bounded on the north by the Republic of the Congo, on the east and south by the DRC, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. Angola has a coastline of about 1600 km (about 1000 mi) and a total area of 1,246,700 sq km (481,350 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Luanda.

LAND AND RESOURCES Angola is the seventh largest country in Africa, covering an area greater than France and Spain combined.

Mineral Resources Angola is rich in mineral resources, and further geological exploration is likely to add to the list of known mineral reserves. Among the most notable resources are petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, manganese, copper, uranium, phosphates, and salt.

Vegetation and Animal Life Vegetation varies with the climate. Thick tropical rain forests are found in the north and in the Cabinda exclave. To the south the rain forests give way to savanna, lands of mixed trees and grasses, which in turn grade into grasslands on the south and east. Palm trees are found on much of the coast, and sparse desert vegetation grows south of Namibe. Wildlife is as diverse as the vegetation and includes many of the larger African mammals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses, giraffes, hippopotamuses, zebras, antelope, lions, and gorillas. Also found are crocodiles and various birds and insects.

Forestry and Fishing The rich rain forests of Cabinda and the northwest furnished 7 million cu m (247 million cu ft) of roundwood for fuel and industrial purposes in 1995. Because of the cool Benguela Current, the waters off the coast of Angola are particularly rich in marine life. Fishing has thus been a traditionally important activity; in 1995 the total catch was 80,723 metric tons, primarily mackerel and sardines. Namibe and Lobito are the principal fishing ports.

Mining  Petroleum accounts for 90 percent of national exports by value. Most production is from the offshore fields of Cabinda, which were first exploited in the 1960s. The total output of crude petroleum in 1996 was 259 million barrels. Diamonds remain the second most important mineral. Output in 1996 was 4.0 million carats; nearly all were of gem quality. Iron ore, formerly the third most important mineral, has not been produced commercially since 1975 because the mines were partially destroyed during the civil war. Production of salt and natural gas has continued, despite the disruption of the war.

Manufacturing The development of the industrial sector has been limited. The principal manufactured products are beverages and processed foods, such as refined sugar, fish meal, flour, and beer. Other products include textiles, cement, glass, and chemicals. Petroleum refineries are located in Cabinda and at Luanda.

Energy  Angola has great hydroelectric potential in the numerous streams that descend from the central plateau. Hydroelectric plants have been constructed on the Cuanza, Cunene, Dande, and Catumbela rivers. The total production of electric energy in 1996 was 1.9 billion kilowatt-hours, 75 percent of which was generated from hydroelectric plants. At present Angola's power production potential exceeds its needs.

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