New Zealand referat

New Zealand

New Zealand New Zealand is a state in the southwest Pacific. It covers those approx.. 1600 km southeast from Australia hauptinseln north island and south island as well as several small inhabited and also uninhabited islands lain. New Zealand has about 3.4 millions inhabitants (1989) and a surface of 269.063 km². The capital of New Zealand is the Wellington lain in the south of the north island. Of New Zealand administration is arranged into 108 counties. The national currency is the New Zealand dollar (NZ $), the office language English. Statistics I * Total area: 269.063 km² * of it land surface: 268.670 km² * Length of the coast: 15,134 km History Probably around the year 1000 after Christ the first Polynesier in kanus reached the island. Until 1642 could develop it undiscovered from the external world their own culture, but then the Dutch sailor discovered Abel Janszoon Tasman as first Europeans New Zealand. He baptized the again discovered country first on the name Staten Landt, later then on Nieuw Zeeland. Tasman accreted at that time in the today's golden Bay, there however by Maori was attacked and fled again. By means of 100 years later, in the year the Endeavour under captain James Cook New Zealand reaches 1769. This takes the islands in the name of the English king George III. in possession. Cook bereist the islands several years long and records its discoveries and experiences in a detailed report on a journey. In the year 1791 the first whalers come to New Zealand. At the same time brought in diseases cause a mass dying among the natives from white ones. 1814 brings mission acres of sheep, cattle, cows and horses in the country. 1819 come it into Taranaki and Wanganui to first heavy arguments between the Maori and the white one. These unrests should persist, so that the English crown sent the envoy James Busby in the year 1833 to New Zealand, in order the disputes to smooth. Busbys efforts were however only from moderate success: 1835 signs 34 chieftains of the north island a declaration of independence and closes to 'United the Tribes OF new Zealand' together. The quasi-rule of the Maori over their island should not be however from long duration. 1840 force upon the British crown to the Maori in the contract of Waitangi the sovereignty. The present Treaty placed the Maori with all rights under the protection of the crown and secured for Great Britain the sovereignty over New Zealand. 1841 are shifted the capital from Okiato to Auckland, W. Hobson are used from Great Britain as governor. In the following years it comes by the systematic Kolonialisierung New Zealand debited to the natives to continual tensions, which culminate to 1843 in the beginning of the Maori wars. These end only in the year 1846/47. 1852 grant England New Zealand in the new Zealand Constitution act to more independence and autonomy. In order to be able to represent the rights of the Maori opposite the English crown more energetically, 1858 Potatau the first king of the Maori one appoints. 1860 come it nevertheless again to unrests, which should persist still to 1870. By the discovery of rich goldvorkommen New Zealand becomes wealthy. The economy is aligned to cattle breeding and the export from meat, wool and milk products to Europe. 1863 take up the first steam railroad line of New Zealand their enterprise. 1865 are shifted the capital after Wellington, where also today still the seat of the government of New Zealand is. 1867 keeps the Maori for the first time 4 seats in the parliament and the right to vote granted. In the subsequent years the education and infrastructure of the country develop themselves further steadily: 1869 are created the first university of New Zealand in Dunedin. The road and above all the railway system are systematically developed. The recession around 1880 and the introduction of the general right to vote in the year 1889 favour the formation of a government by the liberal a party. For the first time at that time, One Vote' applied 'One 'One-Man; Choice system. 1893 was allowed to go also the women to the wahlurnen for the first time on the whole world The reign of the liberals was coined/shaped by a clear democratization of the policy, the development of trade unions and a progressive social politics: 202 trade unions represented already 1901 24,000 members. Since 1898 there was a small national old-age pension for men and women over 65 years. The increase in the population at this time was enormous: At the beginning 20. Century lived already scarcely one million humans in New Zealand, nearly half of you on the north island. In the year 1907 New Zealand von England receives the status of a Dominions and is independent thereby in its decisions. In the First World War New Zealand takes part in fights in the whole world. Thus troops of New Zealand fight on e.g. 1914 against the German colonial gentlemen on Samoa. The large number of the pleasures should meet the nation both demographically and economically with difficulty. After end of the war New Zealand keeps the mandate over Western Samoa and Nauru common with Australia and Great Britain from the voelkerbund. The world economic crisis 1929 meets New Zealand heavily. Also in consequence 1935 the labour party arrives to the bad economic situation for the first time at power. The new government under prime minister M.J. Savage succeeds in providing in the rural areas again for more prosperity. The development of the industry is advanced strengthened and increases public orders given. Where Britain of conditions, incoming goods stood. With these words New Zealand 1939 Hitler Germany explains the war and occurs the Second World War. Soldiers of New Zealand fight in Greece, Italy as well as in the Pacific area. After end of the war New Zealand signs 1947 in the statute of Westminster the declaration of independence of England. 1951 signs New Zealand, Australia and the USA the ANZUS pact, a military defensive alliance for the stabilization of the south Pacific region. New Zealand signs 1959 together with other countries the Antarktic contract for the protection of the ice continent. From 1949-1957 and 1960-1972 those replaces national party the labour party at the government. Despite violent protests in the population it sends from 1965 to 1972 troops of New Zealand at the side of the USA into the Viet Nam war. Subsequently, the government strives 1972 for diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and protests for the first time against the French nuclear tests on the Mururoa atoll. Into consequence of the entry of Great Britain to the European community EEC it comes starting from 1973 into New Zealand to a heavy economic crisis. National the party, which places the government starting from 1975 under the guidance of R. Muldoon, strives to obtain progress particularly in the industrial sector and within the energy-political range. 1983 enter into force an agreement between New Zealand and Australia over an education of a Common Market which can be accomplished to 1988. From the choice of 1984 the labour party follows as a winner. Her leader David long one becomes a new prime minister. New Zealand explains itself 1986 as the nuclear weapon-free zone and in consequence from it from the ANZUS pact with Australia and the USA is excluded. With an enormous Boersencrash in the year 1987 the New Zealanders lose under them many kleinanleger several 100 million dollar. In the same year again the labour party wins the elections. 1989 replace Geoffrey Palmer likewise a member of the labour party long one as a prime minister. To center of the 90's year suffers New Zealand under a continuous recession. 1991 is almost 14% of the population without work. 1995 lead the resumption of the French atomic tests in French Polynesien to substantial protests in New Zealand. The economy of the country stabilizes watching. 1996/97 sink the unemployment ratio under 6% and the rate of exchange of the New Zealand dollar undertake a long continuing high-altitude flight. National nature The north and south island are from each other separated by one approx. 35km long sea strip those Cookstrasse. The core of the north island forms a volcanic high country with active volcanos. Highest volcano is the Ruapehu with 2797m. The alps of New Zealand, which reach in the Mount Cook up to 3764m height, form the backbone of the south island. Toward the east the mountains drop into far levels. New Zealand lies in the range of the moderate widths and has a highly oceanic climate. Only about 20% of the country are covered with forest. Otherwise herschen grass corridors forwards.

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