New Zealand1 referat

New Zealand

New Zealand 1. facts about New Zealand geographical position - situated in the South-Pacific and in the southeast of Australia - 2 big islands, North Island and South Island, and many smaller islands - highest mountain: Mt Cook 3754 m - longest river: Waikato 425 km - longest river: Tasman 29 km - longest river: Mt Ruapehu 2797 m - longest river: Taupo 606 km² area - 268 676 square kilometre - one quarter smaller than Germany - North Island (114 500 km²), South Island (150 700 km²) - no village is farer away than 110km from the sea population - 3,96 million inhabitants - 13 inhabitants per square kilomtre - 88 % of the inhabitants have got European, above all English and Scottish roots - 9% are Maori - 3% are Polynesian from Tonga, American Samoa or from the Cook-Islands - a lot of immigrants came from the Pacific Island Religion - 81% Christians(24% are Anglicans, 18% Presbyterian, 15% Catholics). some are Hindus and Buddhists languages - official languages are English and Maori - Maori is used essential in traditional rituals - a lot of words are taken over from Maori in the English vocabulary of the New Zealander government - independent, democratical country with a parliamentary system - at the same time it is an constitutional monarchy - general right to vote for the grown-up population - head of state: Queen Elizabeth II. à is represented by a governor - constitution: no written constitution economy - 49% of the workers are women - one of the biggest exporter of wool and wool- products - important exports are beef, fish, cheese, butter, wine, fruits, lamb and mutton - unemployment figures have increased since 1990 - economic policy of the National Party is identified of the liberalization of the trade, privatization of the state-owned firms and reduction of the social household - in the past The United Kingdom was the main buyer of the exports - now the main buyers are Australia, the USA and Japan - currency: New Zealand Dollar - industry: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machines, chemical products, metals, mining, tourism traffic and communication - big cities are connected with train, bus and plane - between the North and the South Island ply ferries system of communication is very good, there are a lot of television and broadcasting company family - families with European roots are smaller (often 2 children) than Maori families - Maori families live in big families - a lot of young people leave New Zealand to work in other country education - school attendence is free - compulsory education is 11 years - primary school enclose 5 years - after primary school visit of a secondary school - nearly 50% of the pupils visit the senior class - after that they can go to a college mentality - are proud of their country - people are independent, modest, open-minded, hospitable und love sports - Maoris are proud of their Polynesian roots and their cultural legacy - Maoris are as equal as the white people - the people who live there named themselves 'Kiwis“ - national sport is the rough, gruff Rugby holiday - public holiday: New Year (the first and second day of January), Easter (Good Friday until Easter Monday), the birthday of queen Elisabeth II., the Day of Work (forth Monday in October), Christmas(25. December) and Boxing Day (26. December) - Waitangi-Day (6. February) remembers on the signing of the agreement between Great Britain and the Maoris in 1840 - Anzac-Day (25. April) is celebrated in honour to the armed forces of the country characteristic features - in NZ there are neither snakes nor mammals - smallest penguin of the world - there are parrots which live in the high mountain region - smallest orchid of the world - biggest tree fern of the world - unique plant life and animal world 2. history - in 900 AD the first Maoris came from Polynesia to New Zealand - the legend of the Maoris says that the great discoverer Kupe the country “Aotearoa” named that means the country of the big white cloud - in 1642 Abel Janszoon Tasman discovered New Zealand as the first European - on October 6th in 1769 British man James Cook and the Endeavour reaches New Zealand - on February 6th Waitangi-Agreement was signed between the Maoris and Great Britain, so the Maori accept the British sovereignty à New Zealand is a British colony - from 1840 till 1881 there was a high immigration rate and a lot of wars - in the 19th century some people found gold and so there was a economically upward circle - in 1893 became the pioneer of social reforms - in 1893 New Zealand was the first country which concedes women the right to vote - on September 26th in 1907 NZ became independent from Great Britain 3. most important cities Wellington - capital - seat of government - 331.000 inhabitants - important place of the New Zealand trade - art and culture are promoted, a lot of galleries, for example the National Art Gallery and the National museum Auckland - metropolis where a third of the New Zealand population is living - situated on the North Island - biggest city of NZ - surrounded by water(in the west the Tasmanian Sea, in the north the Pacifc) - 50 islands in the munical area of Auckland - is called 'City of Sails' - Sky Tower, highest building (328 m), - you have got an unbelievable view over the city from the top of the building - 36 museums, 28 theatres and 40 galleries - Auckland Zoo is one of the main attractions there you can see over 150 animal species Russell - wonderful place - first capital of NZ - because of the beautiful buildings of the 19th century the village has got a Victorian aura and a special charm Christchurch - 324.000 inhabitants - biggest city and the most important international door to the South Island - pulsating, cosmopolitan city with exciting festivals, theatres, art galleries and good possibilities of shopping 4. sights Cape Reinga - there meet the blue Pacific and the turquoise Tasmanian Sea - the Pohutukawa Tree is a holy point for the Maori - their legend says that the souls of their deceased go from this point back to their home Ninety Mile Beach - from the end of the Northland peninsula till the Kaitaia - golden sand - fascinating setting for a very varied animal world Night Park in Fairburn - worthwhile visit - near of Kaitaia - visitors are able to visit the spectacular glow-worms and the kiwis during the day as well as in the evening Waipoua Kauri Forest - some of the biggest Kauri trees - the biggest Kauri of the world is the Tane Mahuta (“ruler of the forest”) - it is 51m high, has got a circumference of 14m and an estimated age of 1200years - near the tree there is a small settlement which is called Matakohe - there you can visit an interesting, historical museum Bay of Islands - paradise for friends of water sport - 150 islands are in the bay scattered - harmonious and varied sea scenery Glacier - in the green rainforest - unforgettable sight - from the mount cook massif to the coast - in the middle of the Westland National Park - Westland National Park is the mecca of the mountain climber, huntsmen and hiker Te Anau - Te Anau is the door to the Fjordland National Park - starting point for hikes and boat trips Fjordland National Park - area of 1.2 million hectare - one of the biggest National Parks of the world - nature and scenery from their most impressive side - waterfalls, rainforests and fjords - the rarest birds of NZ Milford Sound - fjord - nearly vertical rockfaces and waterfalls - dolphins and seals - there is a under-water observatory, in it you can see the unique maritime life of the fjord Doubtful Sound - accessible fjord - wide and faraway area - is nearly untouched by the people - seclusion and silence 5. possibilities of spending free time adventure - New Zealand's landscape and temperate climate lends itself to outdoor activity - bungee jumping, jet-boat-riding, rafting and skiing - adventure means different things to different people - best aspect of the New Zealand adventure scene is that it provides activities rated from 'soft' to 'extreme' from hiking and water-skiing to mountain climbing and caving - adventure tourism industry makes the most of having a country surrounded by sea, criss-crossed by rivers and lakes, covered in native bush and with a central spine of spectacular snow-capped mountains - something for everyone who enjoys the outdoor lifestyle and the special sense of freedom events - New Zealand hosts a diverse range of events throughout the year - traditional sports and adventure events and a growing number of arts, culture, and food and wine events - hosts several regional food and wine festivals throughout the year giving visitors the opportunity to try the best and the most unusual wine and food from a region and a chance to meet the locals who produce it - culture comes alive through annual events such as the Wearable Art Awards in Nelson each September where the designs are limited only to the imagination of their creators - home of endurance racing - 240 kilometre Coast to Coast and the Southern Traverse entice athletes from all over the world to conquer the New Zealand terrain - International Rally of New Zealand will be raced again in April 2004 and is an annual round of the World Rally Championship 6. animal world heraldic animal - only mammals are to species of bats - because of no enemies some birds have forgotten to fly - the most famous representative is the kiwi - is a nocturnal animal - is nearly 30 centimetre - very shy - live in faraway areas - population of the kiwis is decreasing - new enemies are martens, weasels, dogs and cats - you are able to watch the kiwi in National Parks animal immigrants - all domestic animals like dogs, cats, sheep, cows and red deer were imported - a big nuisance are the Australian Opossums - were imported as fur-bearing animals, but the demand for opossums sank and so the animals were set free - they have no natural enemies and so they were able to increase 7. plant life - unique plant life - nearly 1500 of the 2000 local species are unique - climate supports the growing of a green rainforest - because of the settlement of the human beings the former vegetation was nearly destroyed - there are dense forests only in unsettled areas and in National Parks - evergreen vegetation covered two third of the country in former times, today it covers only one quarter - Maoris used wood to build houses and canoes - Europeans root out a lot of forests for reclamation of arable land 8. sources - - - Länderlexikon vocabulay modest - selbstgenügsam mentality - Mentalität open-minded – aufgeschlossen hospitable – gastfreundlich Polynesian - Polynesier cultural legacy – Kulturerbe rough – raue gruff – ruppig rare – selten signing – Unterzeichnung agreement – Abkommen armed forces – Streitkräfte exports – Exportgüter lamb – Lammfleisch mutton – Hammelfleisch trade – Handel state-owned firm – staatliches Unternehmen main buyer – Hauptabnehmer compulsory education – Schulpflicht secondary school – Realschule senior class – Oberstufe Goods and Service Tax – Mehrwertsteuer upward circle – Aufschwung pioneer – Vorreiter concede – zugestehen to be sscattered – verstreut sein massif – Massiv seclusion – Abgeschiedenheit high mountain region – Hochgebirge marten – Marder weasel – Wiesel arable land – Ackerland nuisance – Plage fur-bearing animals – Pelztiere Arbeitsblatt New Zealand facts - situated in - highest mountain: - longest river: - area: - inhabitants: - religion à 24% 18% 15% - official languages are - government à history - in the first Maoris came from Polynesia to New Zealand - on British man James Cook and the Endeavour reaches New Zealand - on NZ became independent from Great Britain most important cities Wellington - inhabitants: - of the New Zealand trade - art and culture are promoted, a lot of galleries, for example Auckland - situated on - islands in the munical area of Auckland - is called - highest building: - museums, theatres, galleries sights Night Park in Fairburn - near of - visitors are able to visit Bay of Islands - paradise for - islands are in the bay scattered animal world heraldic animal - the most famous representative is - is a - live in - new enemies are

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