Summary of India referat





Summary of India

is a member of the Commonwealth and together with Pakistan and Bangladesh
it builds the   subcontinent of India
- India is the seventh  largest country in the world and after China it is
the second most populous
- its area is about nearly 3,287 square kilometres
- the capital is New Delhi and the largest city is Bombay with 15,7 Million
people
- in India they speak Hindi and English
Population:
- India has about 16% of the worlds population.
- there live 913 Million people and 73% live in rural areas
- there is an average population of 305 inhabitants per square kilometres
and the population growth is 2,1 % per year
Language:
- there are 24 languages and in large numbers dialects
- the official languages are Hindi and English
Education:
- the old India had already a good educational system, because India sent
students to other parts of Asia to teach
- 1911 Gokhale introduced a bill in parliament about free primary education
- since the beginning of the independence from Britain in 1947, India has
tried to develop an own comprehensive school system
- but the education of India`s population is not easy, because of the religions and social problems
- the money was used to fight against poverty and overpopulation
- nevertheless many changes have been planned with  some being put into, for
example the number of schools and pupils has risen since independence
- the primary education is free, but there is no school duty
- India has 164 universities, 11 institutions with status and more than 8600 art and
technical colleges





The women in India


There are strict rules for the women in India

1. The woman should eat after the man.
2. The woman isn´t allowed to sit if the man stands.
3. In the morning she must get up before her husband gets up.
4. Her husband is allowed to punish his wife and she isn´t allowed to take
revenge.

Mahatma Gandhi, father of a Nation

- real name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (lived from 1869 to 1948)
- studied law and became an attorney
- fought against the violence, the get the name “Mahatma” colonialism and against the racism in the whole world (means “Big Soul”)
- led a life in the sign of a prayer, he went on a fast and meditated
because of his - came in the prison twice in his life political attitude and he called a demonstration to the nation
- 1948 he was assassinated by an extremist
- now, people worshipped him like a saint and there is a monument of him
- his birthday is a public holiday


Religion:
- Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhreligion
- Hinduism, historical background for the division of the society in four castes
- discrimination because of caste membership isn` t allowed, but still exists
- 16th century: Sikhreligion originate from the fusion of Hinduism and Islam
- Buddhism has its roots in India
- Jainism had more supporters in the past than it has today
Customs:
Family structure:
- parents determine the partner of their children
- marriage is a holy matter which doesn` t end with the death of a couple
- Indians are religious and their life is deeply rooted in traditions
- families with a lot of children are the rule
Food and drink:
- dietary habits are different depending on culture and region
- members of traditional families don` t use any flatware but they use the right hand
Manners:
- greeting: “Namaste”, “Hello”, “Hi”
- temple visitors get saffron powder, holy water of the Ganges and sometimes food as blessing of the Gods
- women cover their head, if they enter a holy place
Leisure time:
- numerous modern cinemas
- popular kinds of sport: soccer, cricket and hockey
- numerous religious and cultural celebrations
Public holidays:
- New Year of Hindus: in April or Mai
- first Mai, the day of work as in Europe
- second October, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi




The environmental situation in India

has the highest populate density after China
- many animals (elephants, cows rhinoceros) and plant species (bamboo thorn bushes)
- flora and fauna are threaten by the air contamination from the industry
- other nature disaster -> floods, landslides, earthquakes -> dependent on the monsoon
- is a release for the tropical and subtropical climate
- moderate climate rules in the Himalaya region
- Arabian ocean picks up plenty of humidity  -> much rain
- Moisture and hot climate promote the diffusion of malaria


Indians society and economy

- developing country which made a lot of economic progresses in the last years 
- since 1950 the government has an important role of Indians society
- important steel-producer
- belongs to the worlds biggest producers of tea, cotton and sugar
- a lot of people are malnourished
- very often there is no clean water or sanitary facilities
- over 60% of the population are farmers
- the main food is rice
- big problem of Indians society is the caste-system
- today there is an own paragraph in the constitution which promises the end of this system in the last years Indian had become more and more an consumption-society











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