Europe Unification - European Union referat

European Union

Europe Unification isn't an artificial work, made only by technocrats; it is the fruit of a political decision which is supported by long intellectual, moral and spiritual traditions.

In 1950, May the 9th, Robert Schuman, the French Minister of the Foreign Affairs announced that France proposes the creation of a Coal and Steel European Community (CECO). Later, this announcement were called "Schuman Declaration", and it was the fundamental stone of a European construction.

The Declaration is based on four key elements and which represent the essence of European construction:

a)    The guarantee of a political peace and of economical reconstructions.

b)    Common actions of France and Germany; historical reconciliation.

c)    The guarantee of cooperation between European countries.

d)    The interests unification of European people.

The first principle refferes to the importance of the common institutions and of the rulers which govern them for the guarantee of political peace and economical reconstruction.

Nowadays, Europe has got a active Parlament, democratic elected, a Commision, a Ministers Council which take common decisions for all the citizens and a Justice Court.

The contribution, which can bring an organized and functional Europe to the civilization is indispensable for the mention of the peace relations.

The second principle reflects the necessity to combine an ambitions vision with a pragmatic and gradual progress.

The essence of the political message consists of reconciliation spirit between the former enemies France and Germany, and the common objective of the six founder members of CECO: the construction of an Europe of peace.

The third principle is the recognize of the fact that the process of European integration must be open, through the guarantee of cooperation between European nations.

The fourth principle affirms that the European people represents more than a simple common market; they form a community of interests.

The Institutions of European Union consists of :

a)    European Council is the name given to the high level meetings of a leader of the Union members which take place beginning with the 1975, twice a year.

The Maastricht Treatment officialized the role of the European Counsil to define general directions of the political actions. At the meeting participate the leader of the country and of the govern from the members countries, assisted by foreign ministers and the president of the European Comunitee.

b)    Ministers Council consist of the ministers of the members countries which are responsible for a certain field.

For example the ministers of agriculture will participate to the meetings where they discussed agricultural problems, the transport ministers will discussed transport problems. Each country has got a single representative, so to the Council participate 15 persons. The Reunions take place, usually to Bruxelles. The reunions from April, June and October take place to Luxemburg. The Council is the main organ in taking decisions. It coordonate general economical politics in European Union and define the operations of the Commission general management.

Each member state hold the Presedency of the Council for six months. The Presedency of the Minister Council changes twice a year (in January and in July). From 1999 the order is :Finland, Portugal, France, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Greece. The country which hold the Presedency of the Council house the European Council meeting and preside the Council meetings.

The representatives of the state which hold the Presedency become for six months the representative of the Union in the relations with the other institutions of the Union and with non- members countries. The country which holds the Presedency organizes and orders the priorities and decides the comunitar politics.

Troika of the European Union consists of the Minister in fonction for the Presedency before and the one who follows to holds it. The third Ministers act as a team in the negations which they carry on. The decisions are taken with unanimity,qualified majority and simply majority.

The vote in unanimity is used when new members are received, constitutional affairs, and penalty of the treaties. The vote with qualified majority is used in the most of the situations.each country gives a certain number of votes, depending on number of population. The vote with simple majority, calculated in raport with the number of the Council members, is used for the Council deliberates.

The Council is supported by a secretary formed by 2000 persons, among them 400 are translators  and interpreters and different committee as COREPER.

Permanentely Representative Committee is the organ which prepare the Council meeting. It consists of ambassadors of the member states and their counselor.

c)    European Commission is the executive organ of the European Union. It consists of 20 commissaries (two for France,Italy, Spain, Great Britain, Germany and one from the other states.) The commissary is elected for five year. The Commission has got the following attributions:

1) to guarantee the respectation of the comunitar legislations. And when the member states don't respect it they can bring the member states in front of the Justice Court.

2) to initiate comunitar legislation.

3) to act as mediator when between countries appear some kind of problems.

The Commission is ruled by a president, who is one of the commissaries. Each commissary is responsible for a certain  activity field.

d)    European Parliament is legislative organism. From 1970 it has its own budget. It has the right of Veto against the Comission. It has 626 elected members for five years. The biggest member of europarlamentarians are those of Germany (99), then France, Italy and Great Britain(87)

e)    European Justice Court was founded through "The Treaty from Rome". It is placed in Luxembourg. It consists of 13 lawyers assisted by 6 general advocates. A lawyer is elected for 6 years and a president elected for 3 years. It is the supreme autority of the Union.

f)     The Accounts Court was founded in 1977 by the decision of "The Treaty from Bruxelles". It consists of 15 representatives of the member states for 6 years. They elect their president through secret vote. Their attribution is to check the legality of the budget and the expenditure of it.

g)    European Investments Bank is the banking institution of the European Union, which gives money for the Union projects. It is one of the most important bank in the world.

h)     European Central Investments Bank is the institution which realizes the monetary politics of the European Union. It guarantee the stability of the prices, the emission of the unic currency.