Republic of Chile referat

Republic of Chile

The Republic of Chile is a country of contrasts and extreme beauty, with attractions ranging from the towering volcanic peaks of the Andes to the ancient forests of the Lake District. There are a multitude of very good parks, and plenty of opportunities for fine adventure travel. Chile is justly famous as the location of Torres del Paine, considered by many to be the finest nature travel destinations in all of South America.

Chile ist located in South America and makes up half of the west coast of South America, extending from the southern tip of Peru to the southern tip of Argentina. Its length is over 4,300 kilometers, making it the longest country in the world. At the same time, its width never exceeds 240 km, making the country more than eighteen times longer than its widest point. It has an area of 756,950 square kilometer and it has a population of about 15 million people. This people are a mixture of Spanish, Irish, English, German and Scottish immigrants and native Indians. The capital is Santiago, with a population of about five million people.

To the south, Chile reaches into the cold and inhospitable Antarctic zone. To the west, the shores are pounded by hundreds of miles of the great Pacific Ocean. In the north, Chile is home to the Atacama Desert, one of the most arid lands in the world. Finally, to the east, the huge Andes mountain range runs nearly the entire length of the country. Because of such isolation and challenging land forms, Chile has become of a country of people who are strong, proud, and extremely innovative.

Also part of Chile are two notable Pacific possessions, the Juan Fernandez Islands and the famous Easter Island, both of which are administered as national parks. The Juan Fernandez islands are located about 670 km off the Chilean coast, while Easter Island is situated 3700 km distant.

Chile has many different climates because of its vast continental territory. They range from hot and dry regions in the north to cool and damp regions in the south. The Central Valley has a very temperate climate, with fertile lands.

Politically, Chile is divided in 12 regionsincluding the Antarctic territory, and the metropolitan region. 


The majority of Chile's population is mestizo, a result of frequent intermarriage between early Spanish settlers and indigenous inhabitants. Many Chileans are also of German, Italian, Irish, British, or Yugoslav ancestry. Three small indigenous groups are still distinguishable, the Araucanians of central Chile, the Changos of north Chile, and the Fuegians of Tierra del Fuego. Chile is predominantly urban, with more than a third of the total population concentrated in and around Santiago and Viña Del Mar. Nearly 90% of the people are at least nominally Roman Catholic. Spanish is the country's official language.


Chile's economy is based on the export of minerals, which account for about half of the total value of exports. Copper is the nation's most valuable resource, and Chile is the world's largest producer of the mineral. Agriculture is the main occupation of about 15% of the population; it accounts for about 10% of the national wealth, and produces less than half of the domestic needs. The production of an adequate food supply remains one of Chile's major economic problems. Wheat, potatoes, corn, beans, sugar beets, and fruit are the chief crops; a variety of vegetables, fruits, and grains are grown in the Vale of Chile, the country's primary agricultural area. The vineyards of the valley are the basis of Chile's growing wine industry. Livestock production includes beef and poultry. Sheep raising is the chief pastoral occupation, providing wool and meat for domestic use and for export. Fishing is also an important economic activity.

Santiago - The Capital

Santiago is divided into 32 districts or ,comunas'. It is the capital of Chile and it is the fifth largest city in South America. Santiago is a city that seems destined for growth. The Mapuche destroyed it in 1541, only six months after Pedro de Valdivia founded it, but soon the Spanish were back and building it up again. Today, it is one of the most modern cities on the continent. Santiago is also the central point of a region filled with attractive sites and activities. Only 60 km away are the main South American ski centers, and the beautiful beaches of the Pacific are only an hour's drive to the northwest.

Sights in Santiago:

Plaza de Armas -Main Plaza Plaza de Armas is Santiago's attractive city center. Setting off the plaza are various historic buildings, including the Cathedral, the Arch Bishop's Palace, City Hall, the Central Post Office, and the National History Museum.

San Cristobal Hill The summit of this hill offers spectacular views of the city, and it can be reached via a funicular railway. Up top is giant statue of the Virgin Mary, a zoo, and a restaurant.

Vina del Mar Beaches Vina del Mar, also known as Garden City, is an internationally-known beach resort area located just outside of Valparaiso and about an hour from Santiago. Every February, the International Song Festival held in Vina del Mar attracts the finest stars of Latin America.

Ski Areas Valle Nevado and Portillo ski centers, both among the finest skiing centers in the world, are conveniently located to Santiago. Portillo, a past host of world championship alpine events, has also been the site of a number of downhill speed records.