Ship Types - Torpedo-boat, Destroyer, Frigate, Light cruiser, Heavy cruiser, battleship, Battlecruiser, ASW Cruiser, Missile boat, cruiser, Submarine, Minesweeper referat





Ship Types

Some of the battleships currently available in Europe and all over the world are:

Torpedo-boat These ships have been misrepresented in Empire. They were

designed to kill large ships by swarming them and launching

torpedoes. In fact, they were projected to be so effective

that the French 'Jeune Ecole' (Young School) of naval officers 49668gzx38xkr3b

advocated abandoning battleships entirely, saying that they

would be helpless in the face of the torpedo-boat. In reality,

the torpedo boat was limited by it's short range, deficient




sea-keeping ability, and the battleship's quick acquisition of zk668g9438xkkr

numerous light quick-firing guns and machine guns. They were

effective when used in large numbers, but tended to die a lot.

Destroyer These include three kinds of ships. First is the 1880-1910

destroyers, originally 'torpedo-boat destroyers', and meant to

be cheap ships to screen the battleships. Second is the

1910-1950 version, meant to kill submarines with sonar and

depth-charges. Lastly is the 1950-1965 destroyer, an all around

ship, with ASW and ASuW (anti-surface armament). After that,

they type mostly died out, as it had gotten too large.

Frigate Originally, these were ships of about 200-400t, with a crew

of 200-500, armed with from 30-50 large cannon plus numerous

small cannon. They were intended to scout for ships of the

line, and protect/destroy commerce. After about 1860, the type

died out entirely, and was replaced by light cruisers. In the

1960's, the type was resurrected for a new class of ASW (anti

submarine warfare) ships of small-medium size.

Light cruiser The class came into existence in the 1860-1905 period to provide

fast ships suitable for extended deployment in far-away places.

They were intended to out-class local defense boats, and not

much else. Much was sacrificed to give them long-term speed

end endurance. They were not intended to have a role in a major

battle.

Heavy cruiser This class has a dual role. It was intended to reinforce the

light cruisers in the colonies, providing a heavier punch and

more armor, and also to be scouting elements in major fleet

battles.

Ship-of-the-line

pre-dreadnought

dreadnought

battleship While the names change, the purpose remained the same: a ship

that brings heavy guns close to the enemy and destroys him. It

also was much used for off-shore bombardment, and for ships

of the line, minor invasions. (A complement of 300-400 marines

and 600 sailors allowed a ship of the line to land up to 750

fighting men at any desired point. Small squadrons of these

ships could (and did) take over towns, attack fortresses by

surprise, and generally make life miserable for the defense).

The pre-dreadnought was a battleship with a limited number

(usually 4) of heavy guns, numerous lighter guns ('secondary'

and 'tertiary' armament), and heavy armor on vital portions

of the ship. They were hard to kill, even for themselves, as

they had only a few guns that could penetrate the armor of

their peers.

The dreadnought was introduced in an article in Jane's Fighting

Ships by an Italian designer, who received permission to publish

his design after the Italian government decided that it was

too large and expensive for them. The design/concept was seized

upon by First Sea Lord Jacky Fisher, who rushed completion of

the first ship, the Dreadnought, through in only 1 year. (An

amazing feat and a major record) The Dreadnought gave its

name to the entire type of ship, having 8-12 large calibre

guns, few secondary & tertiary weapons, and good armor. (As

can be guessed, the threat posed by torpedo boats had diminished

considerably, mostly with the quiet abandonment of the policy

of close blockade, and the advent of the destroyer)

The battleship of the 1918-1945 period was faster, and carried

a new AA capacity, especially in the latter years of the period.

After 1945, the class died out (except for 4 ships)

For our purposes, a battleship 1 is a ship of the line, a

battleship 2 is a pre-dreadnought, a battleship 3 is a

dreadnought, and a battleship 4 is what was called a battleship

or (sometimes) super-dreadnought.

Battlecruiser These special ships existed in the 1905-1920 period, prior to

the widespread introduction of oil fuel. They had full battle-



ship guns, and a large speed advantage over the battleships,

but very little armor. They were initially the pet project of

First Sea Lord Jacky Fisher, who intended them to both kill

the heavy/armored cruisers of the time, and to scout for the

battleships. With their heavy armament (and name), their

function inevitably blurred, and they were used in combat

against full-fledged battleships, where they died like flies.

With this (and with the introduction of oil fuel, which made

battleships their equal in speed), they were phased out.

ASW Cruiser These ships came into being in the 1965-present period in

response to a need for a large ASW ship to carry ASW helicopters

and command equipment. It typically carries full ASW armament,

as well as a minor ASuW capability.

Missile boat

Missile frigate

Missile cruiser These ships range in size from 100t missile boats (the modern

replacement for the torpedo-boat) to the 6000-8000t missile

cruiser. They all are designed to bring missiles to bear on

the enemy. (The first successful missile boats were Egyptian,

and used against the Israelis in the 1967 Arab-Israeli war)

The missile frigate and cruiser also serve as SAM ships.

Landing craft These ships are relatively unique, being used mainly in the

1942-1950 period. Before that, landings were carried out by

frigates, ships-of-the-line, light & heavy cruisers, &

pre-dreadnoughts, all of which could land a large number of

men. With the introduction of the concept of beach-defense by

the Germans, these ships were invented to get large numbers of

men on the beaches quickly. After 1950, their functions were

largely assumed by the helicopter.

Aircraft carrier

light carrier

escort carrier These ships are designed for various purposes. At first,

carriers concentrated on scouting for the battleships. Later,

it was proved that airplanes could sink battleships (Thanks to

Billy Mitchell here), and the emphasis moved to all-around sea

control. Still later, with the disappearance of the battleship,

a large power-projection capacity was added.

Light carriers were simply smaller versions of the large or

'fleet' carriers, and were used for the same duties.

Escort carriers were usually hastily converted merchantmen,

and carried small numbers of fighters and ASW planes. (Some

merchantment, in fact, were equipped with 1 fighter and a

temporary catapult. When threatened by enemy planes, the

fighter took off. When it was done, it ditched, and the pilot

was (theoretically) picked up by the merchant ship's convoy.

This was used several times, and worked!)

Submarine The submarine was originally intended, in the 1900-1910 period,

to fill the same role as the torpedo boat, using stealth to

get to the battleships instead of speed. It was a strictly

defensive weapon, without much speed or endurance.

In the 1910-1925 period, the sub was much enlarged, and use in

a combination anti-battleship (sank at least 20)/anti-commerce

role. Endurance was much improved, and the sub could now

operate a long distance from its home port.

In the 1925-1945 period, the sub steadily grew large and more

capable, gaining mostly in speed, sonar ability, and endurance.

After 1945, nuclear power vastly increased the subs endurance,

making it effectively infinite. Sonar was also vastly improved,

and removed the reliance upon the periscope. The subs armament

was also vastly improved with the addition of the SLM & SLBM.

Minesweeper Usually converted fishing vessels, small, and expendable. They

found and destroyed mines with a variety of tricks, including

cables & magnetism.

Bibliography: https://www.empire.cx/infopages/ship-types.html











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