Canada referat


Capital city


27,367 millions


Canada is the 2nd largest country with more than 9,9 million km². Seven percent of the world's area and nine percent of the world's fresh water provision belong to Canada.

The provinces

There are 10 provinces. (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland)

The national symbol

Since the 18th century the maple leaf has been connected with Canada. The leaf is regarded as the most important national symbol of Canada since 1965. Since then Canada has also got its own flag.

The national money

The currency is the Canadian dollar 1 can$ = 100 cents

Geographical nature

The Canadian landscape is very different. Plains with fertile farm land can be found as well as huge mountain ranges, lakes and rivers.

Canada's mountains

The huge mountain ranges in the eastern areas are the Torgat Mountains, the Appalachians and the Laurentians. In the west there are the Rocky Mountains and the Mackenzie Mountains. The Pelly Mountains and Mount St. Elias are in the north. The highest mountain is Mount Logan in the Yukon - territory.

The big lakes

There are a lot of big lakes in Canada. The biggest is Great Bear Lake.

The rivers

Canada's longest river is the Mackenzie River in the Northwest - territories. Other big rivers are the St. Lawrence River, the Churchill River, the Nelson River.

Trade and industry

In the St. Lawrence - valley dairy farming and potato farming is managed. Wheat is grown in the prairies. The timber industry is very important. Canada has a lot of mineral resources like oil, natural gas, iron ore, uranium, copper and nickel. The most important branches of industry are food and drink industry, construction of motor vehicles, paper, textiles and clothing industry also chemical, electrical, oil and coal industry. The basis of the Canadian industry is the cheap power supply with water power.

The railway network is 95.700 km long and the road network is 900.000 km.

The most important shipping route is the St Lawrence Sea Route. Important seaports are Vancouver, Montreal, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Toronto, Halifax and Gander.

National parks and historical places

The Canadian government set up more than 100 historical places, which played a part in the country's history.

Canada's 37 national parks are spread over the whole country. The oldest one is the Banff National Park on the east side of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. It opened in 1885. The Vuntut National Park in the north of Yukon opened in 1993.

The population

In June 1996 Canada had 28,8 million inhabitants, which is 0,5 percent of the population of the earth.

Big cities

Toronto is the biggest city in Canada with its 4,26 million residents followed by Montreal (3,33 million), Vancouver (1,83 million), Ottawa - Hull (1,01 million) and Edmonton (860.000).

Urban and rural population

percent of all Canadians live in a city, only 23,4 percent have their home in the country.

In Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver live 31 percent of the Canadian population.

Life expectancy

Compared to other countries Canada's average life expectancy is very high: men - 74,9 years and women - 81,2 years.

Standard of living

There are only five countries (USA, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Germany and Japan) where the standard of living is higher than in Canada. But Canada has a higher life expectancy and regarded to education Canada leaves Japan behind. More than 65. per cent of the Canadians have a house of their own and Canada has one of the best telecommunication systems. 99 per cent of the Canadians have a telephone.

Social contributions

Every Canadian is entitled to a free medical supply. The Canadian government spent 48 millions dollar for the medical supply from 1993 to 1994. Only the USA spend more money on medical supply.

Canada's languages

English and French


The education differs from province to province. So the attendance of primary school covers six to eight years. The university basis study could take three to four years.


The most played sports are swimming, ice hockey, basketball, golf, cross - country skiing and skiing. The popular sports are football and baseball.

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