IRELAND referat


The population of Ireland

In Ireland there live 4,89 million people. About 3,5 million live in the Republic where 93 per cent of them are Catholics.

From about 1,5 million people living in Northern Ireland there are 60 per cent Protestant.

Ireland as a whole is not a country at war, but a troubled one.

The main problem is about the question, if Northern Ireland should stay part of the United Kingdom or become independent.

How the conflicts started

16th and 17th c The destruction of the traditional Irish lifestyle began,

because of the English settlers. England was fearful

that Catholic enemies might use Ireland as a base from

which to attack Britain.

1609 Therefore the famous “Plantation of Ulster“ took place.

20 000 Protestants were settled down in Ireland. They pushed west the inhabitants of Ireland which caused a lot of troubles.

1690 There was a battle between the Protestant Prince William of Orange and the Roman Catholic King James II of England in Ireland. Prince William won this battle and therefore the members of the Orange Order sill organise marches and celebrate the victories of the Protestant. But they go through catholic areas and this is very provocative.

17th century Oliver Cromwell came to power and he ended Catholics risings in Ireland.

1845 to 49 There was a “great famine” where approximately one million of Catholic people died.

1916 The Catholics wanted to be independent from Great Britain so the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was founded. This anti-British organisation spreads violence all over the country.

1921 Ireland was split into the Republic of Ireland in the South and the Northern Ireland.





Eamon de Valera was the first president of the Republic of Ireland and also an important leader of the IRA.

1968 Protestants had the absolute power because the majority of population were Protestants and there was a totally discrimination against Catholics.

1969 Violence broke out in Northern Ireland and the troubles began. The police was in favour of the protestants. They made laws against the Catholics.

30th Jan. 1972 The conflict between Protestants and Catholics culminated in

an incident in Londonderry, known as "Bloody Sunday". 13 people were killed by British Army soldiers during a peaceful demonstration. None of them was a known terrorist.

Now there are peace talks between Protestants and Catholics, to set an end for the conflicts.


MUSIK: Ireland has one of the most dynamic music traditions in Europe. They have all types of music: From busking and rock to classic, jazz and opera. There are music pubs, where the music and the atmosphere is the same as hundreds and hundreds years ago. With the drown of the pipes and the role of the bodhran drum and the weave of dance.

TRADITIONAL FOOD: Irish Coffee: Irish Whiskey, sugar, strong,hot coffee and creme.

Irish Stew: mutton, a lot of onion, potatoes and cabbage.

LANGUAGE: The first official language was Irish, which belongs to the Celtic language group, but only 2 % of the population speaks it. It’s completely different from English.

e.g.: Mnà ð Women

Fir ð Men

TOBAR: are Holy Wells. There are 3000 in Ireland and if you have toothache, headache or backache you get healthy. You only have to drink water of the tobar. The Irish believe of the power of these wells.






How the conflicts started

16th and 17th c Destruction of Irish lifestyle began.

  1. „Plantation of Ulster“

  1. Battle between Prince William of Orange and King James II of England. 57886ocm13btg2p

17th century Oliver Cromwell

1845 to 49 There was a "great fine" ð one million people died


1916 Irish Republican Army (IRA) was founded.


  1. Ireland was split into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

  1. Protestants had the absolute power.


  1. Violence broke out ct886o7513bttg

Jan 30th, 1972 "Bloody Sunday"

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