Adjectives, conditionals,gerund - gramatica referat







The importance of adjectives










There are three types of adj that can be used to describe things / places :



adj of quality (adj proper )

dry , golden , heavy , sqare , strange , steep , picturesque , rocky, massive , dark .



verbal adj.


a)    derived from present participles (having this effect): a singing  bird , a boring trip, a drifting iceberg , a winding road , a horrifying scene.


b)   derived from past participles (affected in this way):



a forgotten place    but: molten snow

a trodden path                           a sunken ship

a worn-out carpet            a beloved street



compounds:



a)blue-grey (waves ) , greenish (stones) , snow-white (petals) , pitch-dark (cave) , many-coloured (flowers).



b)spiral-shaped (tower) , narrow-laned (village) , ten-storeyed (building) , world-famous (theatre) , dawn-cold (air).



c)strange-looking (hut) , soft-rustling (leaves) , faint-glimmering (lighthouse) , water-borne (trees) , snow-bound (chalet).













More about adjectives (I)







Let us take into consideration these two sentences:


q      You seem to be more and more interested in this topic.

q      The older the children , the bigger problems.


They introduce the two “double comparative “ constructions , both of which emphsize increase or decrease of intensity or effect:


A)Gradual increase the or decrease by two comparatives joined by and:


q      In winter the days are shorter and shorter and the nights are longer and longer.

q      Last month she seemed less and less aware of the consequences, but now she proves to be more and more determined to win.

q      I’m afraid she feels worse and worse.


B)Parallel increase is expressed by :


q      The longer the nights (are), the shorter the days (are).

q      The fewer sweets you’ll eat, the thinner you’ll be.

q      The less she hears from him,the more worried she becomes.


More about adjectives(II)





Look at the following groups of sentences. Can you spot the difference ?


A)            This novel is as good as the one I lent you last week.

Michael is as reliable as Tom.

Problem 5 is as difficult as Problem 3.


B)            Her brother is as thin as a rake.

The night was as black as pitch/coal.

When he heard about the prize he was as merry as a cricket.



A  SIMILE is a expression which describes one thong by directly comparing it with another, using as…as, like in the ordinary comparison of  equality (group A)

Sometimes the world like can also be part of simile. (a face like a mask )








CONDITIONALS







If I  were to chose , I would like something.

subjounctive        conditional



Type I:




It expresses something that may happen , depending , on a certain condition.

PP – present / future


If it doesn’t rain , we will go for a walk .

present                 future



Type II:


It refers to something that contradict reality in the present.


If I had a car , I would borrow it to you.

Past Subjounctive          Conditional Present      

(to be were)                 (S+would+infinitive)


Also introduced by : in case suppose supposing unless.



Type III:


If you had been more careful , you wouldn’t have lost your bag.

Past Perfect Subjounctive Past Conditional


(Past Perfect Ind) S+would+have+P.Partc                    

S+had+Past Participle   









Gerund






The Gerund is used:

q      With such verbs as : to admit , to avoid, to begin, to continue, to delay, to deny, to dislike, to enjoy, to fancy, to forget, to forgive, to hate, to imagine, to keep (on), to like, to love , to mind, to miss, to omit, to postpone, to remember, to regret, to risk, to start, to stop, to try, etc.


Imagine meeting them in London at that party!


q      With such verbs with prepositions/adverbs as: to accuse of, to agree with, to approve of, to count on, to give up, to go on, to insist on, to keep on, to prevent from, to put off, to rely on, to succeed in, to think of ,etc .


At last we succeeded in doing that difficult exercise.


q      With be/get + adjective/Past Participle+preposition: to be afraid of, to be capable of, to be interested in, to be responsible for, to be surprised at, to be/get used to, to be/get accustomed to, etc.


We were all surprised at hearing this news.


q      After such expressions as: can’t help, can’t stand, it’s no good/use, to look forward to, to feel like, etc.


I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.



Some verbs can be followed either by The Gerund or by The Infinitive


q      The Gerund after such verbs as to remember, to forget, to neglect, to omit expresses an action that precedes these verbs,while The Infinitive expresses an action that follows them.


I remember seeing that film.(=I had seen).

She remembered to buy some bread for dinner.( First she remembered and then she buoght it ).


q      To try by The Infinitive means “to make an effort”, while when followed by The Gerund means “to make an experiment”.


The little boy tried to lift the suitcase, but it was too heavy for him.

The sick woman tried taking some medicine,but the pain didn’t go away.





















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