Istanbul referat


Istanbul ,one of the great historical cities of the world, is the only city in the world located upon two continents with one arm reaching out to Asia and the other arm to Europe. Through the city's heart runs the sea channel called the Bosphorus which reaches north to The Black Sea and south to the Marmara Sea.

The channel is in average 2 km wide, near Rumeli Hisar even only 750m.

The name Bosphorus comes from the mystic person ‚Io‘, who swam through the channel after having been made a cow (Bosphorus means ‚Furth des Ochsen‘ in German).

Istanbul is located in the Marmara region of Turkey and is a major seaport city as well as an industrial, commercial, educational and financial center and trade center. The city is divided into three parts - the old city , the new city and the Asiatic side. The old town and new town which encompass the greater part of the city are located in Europe.

The old city, where the majority of historical monuments are found, lies along the Golden Horn. The most famous of these monuments are St.Sophia, Blue Mosque, Hippodrome, The Wall of Theodosius, Topkapi Palace, Suleymaniye Mosque, Underground Cistern, St.Eirene, St.Saviour in Chora, Archeological Museum, Grand Bazaar and the Spice Market.
The new part of the city displays a modern impression of Istanbul with its skyscrapers and luxurious shopping centers, but, at the same time, one is reminded of Istanbul's history.

The Asiatic side of the city is a mixture of modern houses, wooden villas as well as historical sites

Within the urban district of Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara, there are nine islands, called Princess Islands, where Byzantine Princes used to be exiled. The largest and the most popular one is Buyuk Ada, because the island is larger and there are many things to see and do. The rest of the popular islands are Kinali Ada, Burgaz Ada, Heybeli Ada, and Sedef Ada.

Three bridges are located in Istanbul. Two between the continents, the Bosphorus Bridge and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. The new Galata Bridge and the Atatürk Bridge connect the old and the new part of Istanbul across the Golden Horn.

Within the last years Istanbul‘s population grew dramatically. Today more than a half of the inhabitants live in not planned suburbs of Istanbul. The major water courses are rather polluted causing decline in the fishing industry. Also, traffic on the water courses is a problem and seems to be increasing. Air pollution is another concern since the center of manufacturing was located near areas of greatest population density

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