Josef Stalin and the URSS referat





Important Dates:






Josef Stalin is born



The October Revolution form Russia brings the Bolsheviks (communist) to power



The Civil War



Stalin is named General Secretary of the Communist Party. U.R.S.S is formed



Stalin becomes the ruler of U.R.S.S



The basis of collectivization is set. The first Plan Cincinal (dated in 1928)



The assassination of Kirov. The first purifyings are taking place.



The Great Terror starts, Zinoviev and Kamenev are shot after public trials.


 

Josef Stalin and the URSS

 



Under the leadership of Josef Stalin, U.R.S.S. has become fast an industrialized state, and having won the Second World War, a super power. In the same time, though, Stalin’s tyranny has brought the ruin of the Russian society.

Even before the death of the Soviet ruler Lenin, the leaders of the Communist Party have begun the fight for succession. Controlling the party meant in fact holding control of the whole country – the first socialist country, giant but extremely unevolved. The ’20 witnessed some big fights for power. In 1923 Stalin, the General Secretary of the Party, allies with Zinoviev and Kamenev in order to defeat the plans of a brilliant and apparent dangerous rival – Leon Trotki. In 1925 Stalin finds new allies in Bucharin and Ricov, getting rid of Zinoviev and Kamenev. Finally in 1929, Stalin beats his former allies and becomes the only ruler of the U.R.S.S.



The real name of Stalin was Iosif Djugasvili. The name under which he became popular was adopted during the revolutionary acts. Stalin was born under the sign of poverty and obscurity, not a Russian citizen, but in Georgia, ruled at that time by the czarist Russia. He learnt a fluent Russian at one of the Sunday Schools organized by the church, afterwards being sent at a seminar in order to become a priest. He proved however a special interest for the socialist writings and ideas which was the reason why he was expelled in 1899. He entered in the circle of the revolutionaries and spent the next years supporting the cause of the revolution, being often thrown in prison or forced to live in intern exile.

In 1912, he enrolls in the Bolshevik Party (later known as Communist), becoming member of the Central Committee. The role played in the Revolution in October 1917 was insignificant (which was hushed up later), but afterwards he proved himself skilful in solving the problems which popped during the Civil War. He was named first Minister of the Nationalities, and in 1922 became the General Secretary of the Communist Party. This desk work, apparently boring, was for Stalin the road to power, giving him the opportunity to control the party’s committees and so to promote his own sustainers. So the ’20 were for Stalin full of important successes against his rivals.


The German-Soviet agreement. The Germans invade Poland. The U.R.S.S occupies the East of Poland. The Russian-Finnish War



Germany attacks the Soviet Union



The end of the Second World War



The communists regimes are installed in Eastern Europe



The death of Stalin

  These were, obviously, politic disputes and not real fights: although the communists treated their opponents with harshness, there was an unwritten rule which said that blood being spilt was a thing to avoid in party confrontations. These disputes were aimed to personal supremacy, but also there was an ideological aspect, each fraction sustaining a certain political view. From this point of view, the most important conflict was between Stalin and Trotki. Trotki had adopted the traditional Marxist point of view. He believed that, because of the isolation and unevolving, U.R.S.S. should not organize alone a socialist society, but instead try to continue to resist and sustain a generalized revolution, during which the industrialized societies would give U.R.S.S. the necessary help. After the failure of the revolutionary acts in Europe after the First World War, Stalin sustained that the Soviet Union could have managed alone. His slogan, “Socialism in one single country”, was unstable as a Marxist doctrine, but through its positive note which brought, formed the attraction for the young people which enrolled in the party. Stalin’s politics, sustained by a continuous propaganda, led to the mobilization of the Russian nation, causing a wave of enthusiasm regarding the “construction of socialism”.








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