Basic Differences and Influences of Change between American and British English referat





Muresan Camelia Vasilica

LRE I / 1



American vs. British English
Basic Differences and Influences of Change





Introduction


American English acquired international significance after World War II, when the United States assumed a more global role and political, economic and technological developments promoted American influence worldwide. American English currently asserts a dominant influence on 'world English' (cf. British English) largely due to the following:

Population: U.S. vs. U.K. (SAE/SBE ca 70% vs. 17% of all native English;

Wealth of the U.S. vs. the U.K. economy, & influences

Magnitude of higher education in America vs. the U.K.

Magnitude of the publishing industry in America

Magnitude of mass media and media technology influence on a worldwide scale

Appeal of American popular culture on language & habits

International political and economic position of the U.S.

American and British English are both 'variants' of the English Language, more similar than different, especially with 'educated' or 'scientific' English. Most divergence is due to differences in national history and national cultural development, varying regional and local idioms and colloquialisms, and media/advertising influences.

The following general categories of difference between standard American English (SAE) and standard British English (SBE) each have their own sociolectic value:


I. Different Pronunciation, although same spelling

Advertisement (advert, ad)

Controversy, Laboratory, Secretary

Leisure, schedule, dance, dynasty

Renaissance, oregano, clerk [bank, office], ate

'PC'-influence examples: harass, harassment, Uranus, etc.

II. Different Spelling, although same pronunciation

Colour — color, Centre — center

Cheque — check (noun form [bank]; verb 'to check' the same)

Defence — defense (noun form), Licence (noun form) — license

Alright — all right; Manoeuvre — maneuver; tyre — tire

Ageing — aging; Whisky — whiskey (U.S. & Ireland)

Gaol — jail

III. Same Term, different but similar spelling and pronunciation

Aluminium — aluminum

Polythene — polyethylene

Maths — math (shortening of 'mathematics')

Rise — raise (more money in salary, wages)

IV. Same Words, Different or Additional Meanings in One Variety

Pavement (GB) = Sidewalk (US); Pavement (US) = Road (GB)

I married a homely girl. The opening of our new play was a bomb!

Nigel and Trevor purchased 7-day Travelcard season tickets.

Evelyn took a coin out of [his/her] purse (GB=male, coin purse; US=female, handbag)

The committee tabled the motion (put it on the table).

We all had tea and biscuits. (cf Harry Potter, 'crumpets' vs 'English muffins')

The corn harvest was exceptional this year. (cf. 'maize', 'sweetcorn')

We needed a torch for the dark trail. (cf. flashlight, electric torch, flaming torch)

IBM made over a billion dollars last year. (cf 'thousand million'; changing GB standards)

Trousers (GB) = Pants (US); Pants (US) = underwear (GB)

Jumper (GB) = Sweater (US); Jumper (US) = pinafore [dress] (GB)

Shorts (US) = underwear (GB); Vest (US) = underwear (GB)

Pekka was climbing in the lime tree (lehmus, cf linden, basswood, common lime)




V. Grammar, Syntax, Punctuation, General Usage

Punctuation

Business letter salutations, colons vs commas

Date writing, number/word order (Never use only numbers!)

Use of commas and periods inside quotation marks



Capitalization of titles of articles, essays

Grammar

(U.S.) Finnair has a flight to London today.
(G.B.) Finnair has/have a flight to London today. (large collective nouns)

(U.S.) England has () played well today, even if it lost.
(G.B.) England have played well today, even if they lost.

(G.B.) The Government are acting like themselves again.

(G.B.) Have you got your grade in history yet?
(U.S.) Have you gotten your grade in history yet?

(G.B.) He went on a course. How many were on the course?
(U.S.) He was in a course. How many were in the course?

(G.B.) We lived in the High Street. (cf 'street people )
(U.S.) We lived on Main Street ('on' plus article plus High/Main)

(G.B.) He's in hospital with a broken leg.
(U.S.) He's in the hospital with a broken leg.

(G.B.) I have got a car. vs. (U.S.) I have a car. I got a car. (different implications)

(G.B.) We weren't able to catch him up;
(U.S.) We weren't able to catch him, catch up with him, catch up [with him].

One was different from/than the other.

VI. Divergence and Overlap

To post vs to mail a letter — an art gallery vs an art museum

Autumn vs fall — tap vs faucet, Luggage vs baggage, shop vs store, etc.

VII. Same Concept, Different Terms or Expressions; (or)
Same Word, Differences in Style, Connotation and Frequency

Hire a car — rent a car (hire-purchase vs installment plan)

Petrol — gasoline; Saloon — sedan, Estate car — station wagon

Boot — trunk (storage area); silencer — muffler (to reduce exhaust noise)

Bonnet — hood; Dynamo — generator; Gear lever — shift

Sweet — dessert; Red whortleberries — lingonberries

Fortnight — two weeks; Goods train — freight train

Barrister, Solicitor — lawyer, attorney-at-law

VIII. 'Inventiveness'; Spinoffs; Combinations; Brand Names

Hamburger — cheeseburger, beefburger, fishburger, lobsterburger ..

Hotel, Motel, floatel, boatel

Hardware, software, firmware, shareware, freeware, vaporware, treeware ..

Suburb, exurb, cyburb, technoburb; citizen, netizen

Smog, Litterbug, 'pleather' (fabric), cosmeceuticals, pharming, 'transgenetic' (cf GM) foods

Sexploitation, cityscape, zeroscaping (xeric plants)

a 'spin doctor' (political aide), 'what was the spin on that story?'

'Half and half'; 'A six-pack of PBR tallboys' (cf. 'short dogs')

'Let's go and visit the Colonel .'

(Roz, on Frasier): 'I'm going to climb into a hot tub with my good friends Ben and Jerry'

IX. Euphemistic References

Senior citizen, emeritus professor

Sanitary engineer, environmental technician (janitor)

Security officer, hair stylist, household manager

Powder room, ladies' lounge; motion discomfort bag

Pre-owned car, 'Culturally-deprived area'

'The loved one' (cf death and funeral jargon generally)

'Air support missions', 'ordnance delivery', 'pacify an area' (cf military generally)

'To deselect, dehire' employees; to 'downsize, right-size' the company

an 'involuntary conversion' of our 727 equipment (plane crash)

X. 'Equality' Vocabulary

Fireman — firefighter, Policeman — police officer



Mailman — mail carrier, Salesman — sales person

Manmade — artificial, synthetic, manufactured

Maid — house cleaner. Stewardess — flight attendant

Chairman — chairperson, Chair, presiding officer

XI. 'Politically Correct' Terminology

Elderly or 'old' people vs senior citizens; seniors; 'older' adults, adults 55 & older

Differently-abled or physically-challenged (vs 'handicapped')

Animal companion vs 'pet', Native American vs 'Indian'

People of Color vs 'blacks' (or any non-whites); Canola vs 'rapeseed'

International Wildlife Conservation Park (former Bronx Zoo - 'zoo' connotations)

XII. 'Black English' (specific terminology in cultural context)

Everybody look down at they feet; I ain't afraid of nuthin'

You ugly, man; I the baddest cat around; He be good.

Boy, Nigger, Soul food, Honkie, rapping, gig, cool!

XIII. Yiddish Influence

Schlock, Goy, Schlemiel, schlep, chutzpa, nebbish, shtik

He should live so long! I should have such luck!

He's complaining yet! This I need? All right already.

Fat-shmat, so long as she's happy. Smart, he's not

XIV. Other Ethnic Influences Abound

'Gay' liberation movement (drag, closet, fairy, fruitcake, 'to out' - 'he was outed')

Organized crime, crime syndicate (vs 'Mafia')

'Chicano' (vs 'hispanic') culture vs 'wetbacks,' etc

XV. Jargon; 'Professional' influences, Media conveyance

Computer: ASCII text, fonts, justified margins, a windowed environment, mouse-compatible, on-line access, upload/download, e-mail 'flaming'

Drugs: Cocaine (coke, leaf, snow, angel dust); crack, valise, kilos, brick, 'trips'

Social Position: Yuppie, Buppie, Puppie, Dinks, Woofs

Business: Power breakfast, Valium picnic, warm fuzzies,

Youthisms: dork, nerd, geek, dweeb; psyched, pumped, barf

Technology and Media in Culture: technocrat, technopeasant, techno-potato, tech-nomads; digerati, virtual corporation, telecommuting, edutainment, 'terrestrial' TV (vs satellite); [broadcasting to] 'narrowcasting', [human] 'multitasking'

XVI. Regional and Class Terminological Stereotyping

The South vs California

'bourbon and branch,' 'blues, banjos, Billy Bob, Bubba & baptists' 'good ole' boys,' 'ice tea, grits & red-eye; pecan pie'

'Awesome,' 'mondo,' 'tubular' (Rhonda, Kim, Tracy, & Kelli [Valley Girls])

Terms for general, unknown, 'anonymous' or 'stereotypical' persons

'Uncle Sam' (U.S.) vs 'John Bull' (U.K.)

John Doe, John Q. Public, Joe Citizen

Joe Blow, Joe Shmoe, Joe Six-Pack, 'Mac', 'brother', 'sister'

Varying implications (region, education, ethnic) of 'non-grammatical' language

(a) 'He ain't done nothin' yet' (uneducated, rural?)

(b) 'He done et over at th' Hatfields' (hillbilly)

(c) 'You be latethe food be cold.' (Black English)

XVII. 'Four-letter words', Obscenities and Implied Obscenities

Damn, fart, piss, crap, turd, shit, fuck, cunt; vs GB bloody, bugger, sod, etc.

'A five-letter woman married to a four-letter man.'

His daughter was a thespian who matriculated at the state college.
She came to the party with a homo sapiens!

The dean said he was an extrovert. He masticated during the meal.












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