Muresan Camelia Vasilica
American vs. British English
Basic Differences and Influences of Change
American English acquired international
significance after World War II, when the
Wealth of the
higher education in
the publishing industry in
Magnitude of mass media and media technology influence on a worldwide scale
Appeal of American popular culture on language & habits
political and economic position of the
American and British English are both 'variants' of the English Language, more similar than different, especially with 'educated' or 'scientific' English. Most divergence is due to differences in national history and national cultural development, varying regional and local idioms and colloquialisms, and media/advertising influences.
The following general categories of difference between standard American English (SAE) and standard British English (SBE) each have their own sociolectic value:
I. Different Pronunciation, although same spelling
Advertisement (advert, ad)
Controversy, Laboratory, Secretary
Leisure, schedule, dance, dynasty
Renaissance, oregano, clerk [bank, office], ate
'PC'-influence examples: harass, harassment, Uranus, etc.
II. Different Spelling, although same pronunciation
Colour — color, Centre — center
Cheque — check (noun form [bank]; verb 'to check' the same)
Defence — defense (noun form), Licence (noun form) — license
Alright — all right; Manoeuvre — maneuver; tyre — tire
Ageing — aging; Whisky — whiskey (
Gaol — jail
III. Same Term, different but similar spelling and pronunciation
Aluminium — aluminum
Polythene — polyethylene
Maths — math (shortening of 'mathematics')
Rise — raise (more money in salary, wages)
IV. Same Words, Different or Additional Meanings in One Variety
Pavement (GB) = Sidewalk (US); Pavement (US) = Road (GB)
I married a homely girl. The opening of our new play was a bomb!
Nigel and Trevor purchased 7-day Travelcard season tickets.
Evelyn took a coin out of [his/her] purse (GB=male, coin purse; US=female, handbag)
The committee tabled the motion (put it on the table).
We all had tea and biscuits. (cf Harry Potter, 'crumpets' vs 'English muffins')
The corn harvest was exceptional this year. (cf. 'maize', 'sweetcorn')
We needed a torch for the dark trail. (cf. flashlight, electric torch, flaming torch)
IBM made over a billion dollars last year. (cf 'thousand million'; changing GB standards)
Trousers (GB) = Pants (US); Pants (US) = underwear (GB)
Jumper (GB) = Sweater (US); Jumper (US) = pinafore [dress] (GB)
Shorts (US) = underwear (GB); Vest (US) = underwear (GB)
Pekka was climbing in the lime tree (lehmus, cf linden, basswood, common lime)
V. Grammar, Syntax, Punctuation, General Usage
Business letter salutations, colons vs commas
Date writing, number/word order (Never use only numbers!)
Use of commas and periods inside quotation marks
Capitalization of titles of articles, essays
(G.B.) Finnair has/have a flight to
(G.B.) The Government are acting like themselves again.
you got your grade in history yet?
(G.B.) He went
on a course. How many were on the course?
lived in the High Street. (cf 'street people )
(G.B.) He's in
hospital with a broken leg.
(G.B.) I have
got a car. vs. (
weren't able to catch him up;
One was different from/than the other.
VI. Divergence and Overlap
To post vs to mail a letter — an art gallery vs an art museum
Autumn vs fall — tap vs faucet, Luggage vs baggage, shop vs store, etc.
Same Concept, Different Terms or Expressions; (or)
Same Word, Differences in Style, Connotation and Frequency
Hire a car — rent a car (hire-purchase vs installment plan)
Petrol — gasoline; Saloon — sedan, Estate car — station wagon
Boot — trunk (storage area); silencer — muffler (to reduce exhaust noise)
Bonnet — hood; Dynamo — generator; Gear lever — shift
Sweet — dessert; Red whortleberries — lingonberries
Fortnight — two weeks; Goods train — freight train
Barrister, Solicitor — lawyer, attorney-at-law
VIII. 'Inventiveness'; Spinoffs; Combinations; Brand Names
Hamburger — cheeseburger, beefburger, fishburger, lobsterburger ..
Hotel, Motel, floatel, boatel
Hardware, software, firmware, shareware, freeware, vaporware, treeware ..
Suburb, exurb, cyburb, technoburb; citizen, netizen
Smog, Litterbug, 'pleather' (fabric), cosmeceuticals, pharming, 'transgenetic' (cf GM) foods
Sexploitation, cityscape, zeroscaping (xeric plants)
a 'spin doctor' (political aide), 'what was the spin on that story?'
'Half and half'; 'A six-pack of PBR tallboys' (cf. 'short dogs')
'Let's go and visit the Colonel .'
(Roz, on Frasier): 'I'm going to climb into a hot tub with my good friends Ben and Jerry'
IX. Euphemistic References
Senior citizen, emeritus professor
Sanitary engineer, environmental technician (janitor)
Security officer, hair stylist, household manager
Powder room, ladies' lounge; motion discomfort bag
Pre-owned car, 'Culturally-deprived area'
'The loved one' (cf death and funeral jargon generally)
'Air support missions', 'ordnance delivery', 'pacify an area' (cf military generally)
'To deselect, dehire' employees; to 'downsize, right-size' the company
an 'involuntary conversion' of our 727 equipment (plane crash)
X. 'Equality' Vocabulary
Fireman — firefighter, Policeman — police officer
Mailman — mail carrier, Salesman — sales person
Manmade — artificial, synthetic, manufactured
Maid — house cleaner. Stewardess — flight attendant
Chairman — chairperson, Chair, presiding officer
XI. 'Politically Correct' Terminology
Elderly or 'old' people vs senior citizens; seniors; 'older' adults, adults 55 & older
Differently-abled or physically-challenged (vs 'handicapped')
Animal companion vs 'pet', Native American vs 'Indian'
People of Color vs 'blacks' (or any non-whites); Canola vs 'rapeseed'
XII. 'Black English' (specific terminology in cultural context)
Everybody look down at they feet; I ain't afraid of nuthin'
You ugly, man; I the baddest cat around; He be good.
Boy, Nigger, Soul food, Honkie, rapping, gig, cool!
XIII. Yiddish Influence
Schlock, Goy, Schlemiel, schlep, chutzpa, nebbish, shtik
He should live so long! I should have such luck!
He's complaining yet! This I need? All right already.
Fat-shmat, so long as she's happy. Smart, he's not
XIV. Other Ethnic Influences Abound
'Gay' liberation movement (drag, closet, fairy, fruitcake, 'to out' - 'he was outed')
Organized crime, crime syndicate (vs 'Mafia')
'Chicano' (vs 'hispanic') culture vs 'wetbacks,' etc
XV. Jargon; 'Professional' influences, Media conveyance
Computer: ASCII text, fonts, justified margins, a windowed environment, mouse-compatible, on-line access, upload/download, e-mail 'flaming'
Drugs: Cocaine (coke, leaf, snow, angel dust); crack, valise, kilos, brick, 'trips'
Social Position: Yuppie, Buppie, Puppie, Dinks, Woofs
Business: Power breakfast, Valium picnic, warm fuzzies,
Youthisms: dork, nerd, geek, dweeb; psyched, pumped, barf
Technology and Media in Culture: technocrat, technopeasant, techno-potato, tech-nomads; digerati, virtual corporation, telecommuting, edutainment, 'terrestrial' TV (vs satellite); [broadcasting to] 'narrowcasting', [human] 'multitasking'
XVI. Regional and Class Terminological Stereotyping
The South vs
'bourbon and branch,' 'blues, banjos, Billy Bob, Bubba & baptists' 'good ole' boys,' 'ice tea, grits & red-eye; pecan pie'
'Awesome,' 'mondo,' 'tubular' (Rhonda, Kim, Tracy, & Kelli [Valley Girls])
Terms for general, unknown, 'anonymous' or 'stereotypical' persons
'Uncle Sam' (
John Doe, John Q. Public, Joe Citizen
Joe Blow, Joe Shmoe, Joe Six-Pack, 'Mac', 'brother', 'sister'
Varying implications (region, education, ethnic) of 'non-grammatical' language
(a) 'He ain't done nothin' yet' (uneducated, rural?)
(b) 'He done et over at th' Hatfields' (hillbilly)
(c) 'You be latethe food be cold.' (Black English)
XVII. 'Four-letter words', Obscenities and Implied Obscenities
Damn, fart, piss, crap, turd, shit, fuck, cunt; vs GB bloody, bugger, sod, etc.
'A five-letter woman married to a four-letter man.'
His daughter was a thespian who matriculated
at the state college.
She came to the party with a homo sapiens!
The dean said he was an extrovert. He masticated during the meal.
Ultimele referate adaugate
- Mihai beniuc - „poezii"
- Mihai eminescu - student la berlin
- Mircea Eliade - Mioara Nazdravana (mioriţa)
- Chirita in provintie de Vasile Alecsandri -expunerea subiectului
- Dragoste de viata de Jack London
|Ion Luca Caragiale
- Triumful talentului… (reproducere) de Ion Luca Caragiale
- Fantasticul in proza lui Mircea Eliade - La tiganci
- „Personalitate creatoare” si „figura a spiritului creator” eminescian
- Enigma Otiliei de George Calinescu - geneza, subiectul si tema romanului
- Arta literara in romanul Ion, - Liviu Rebreanu