England (Latin Anglia),
political division of the island of Great Britain, the principal division of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland,
other divisions of the island
of Great Britain.
Established as an independent monarchy many centuries ago, England in time achieved political control over
the rest of the island, all the British Isles,
and vast sections of the world, becoming the nucleus of one of the greatest
empires in history. The capital, largest city, and chief port
of England is London, with a population in 1996 of 7
million. It is also the capital of the United
Kingdom and the site of the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The most important
buildings in England are: Tower Bridge,
The Tower of London, Oxford
University, Big Ben,
Bridge is one of the
world’s most famous bridges. 150,000 vehicles cross it every day. Over 900
times a year the roadway parts and lifts to let tall ships, cruise liners and
other large craft pass through.
Tower Bridge Experience welcomes you inside
the Gothic towers to discover the fascinating history of the bridge. You can
visit the original engine rooms. And from the high-level walkways you can look
out across the modern city skyline and downriver to Canary Wharf.
The visit takes about an hour. The memories will last for very much longer.
The Tower of London,
located on the northern bank of the Thames
River, was built about
1078. It was used alternately as a fortress, royal residence, and state prison
in its early years. Today, it is maintained as an arsenal with a garrison, and
is open to the public. The well-preserved Norman
and medieval structures cover nearly 7.2 hectares (18 acres).
Oxford is a unique and historic
institution. As the oldest English-speaking university in the world, it lays
claim to eight centuries of continuous existence. There is no clear date of
foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in
some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English
students from attending the University
England’s oldest institution of
higher learning, Oxford University,
is a federation of 35 colleges, each with its own structure and activities.
Many prominent people have attended the All Souls College .
Named after Sir Benjamin Hall, London’s
portly commissioner of works, Big Ben
is the great bell in the clock tower on the eastern end of the Houses of
Parliament in London.
The booming 13.5-ton bell first rang out in 1859.
was built for the Duke of
Buckingham in 1703. George III
purchased the house in 1762 and used it as one of the royal family's London homes. George IV
employed John Nash to build a new
palace round the old house. Nash designed the building with Marble Arch as the
main entrance. Marble Arch was later moved to Hyde Park.
It was not until 1837 that Queen Victoria
made Buckingham Palace
the royal family's principal London residence.