Augustan Age sparked a major economic revival. The emperor directly controlled
coinage, taxation, and his own enormous estates, but otherwise allowed the
economy to operate freely, with demand dictating prices and profits. Above all
it was the end of civil war that encouraged economic growth. Roman armies could
control piracy and allow maritime trade across the
of the Mysteries, Pompeii Many wealthy Romans invested in land, which they used
for agriculture as well as recreation. Often the owners lived in the city and
hired an overseer to manage their estates. Many also had lavish homes or villas
which included beautiful works of art like this fresco from the Villa of the
Mysteries outside of
was the basis of the Roman economy. Republican senators traditionally invested
their wealth in Italian land, but the imperial peace also encouraged them to
invest abroad. The Romans began to cultivate more land when they brought
Mediterranean plants and more sophisticated farming methods farther north into
lived in the cities or, in the case of the truly wealthy, in
Roman industry did not include mass production, and small workshops manufactured pottery, metalwork, and glass. A successful brickmaker might have owned dozens of workshops rather than one large factory. Manufacturers dispersed or decentralized their production because it was expensive to transport goods. Bricks for construction were made at the building site, or terra-cotta figurines were fashioned at the temple where they were sold. Unlike independent artisans who had their own shops, wage laborers were treated with contempt in the ancient world and worked alongside slaves.
eastern Mediterranean was initially the manufacturing center of the Roman world,
but under the empire,
Roman Ship Most Roman ships designed for commerce or war featured distinctive square sails. Long banks of oars propelled the ships swiftly through the water. Warships often had additional protective coverings to shield the crew from fire and missiles.© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
was the safest investment for the wealthy, but trade was the only legal way to
acquire a fortune quickly. Transport by sea was far cheaper than by land, but
every voyage faced both financial risks and opportunities. Shipwrecks occurred
frequently during this period, and now provide archaeologists with abundant
information about Roman shipping routes and cargoes. The Romans shipped food
and rare raw materials like colored marble throughout the Mediterranean, along
with Egyptian papyrus reeds for paper, purple dye from
Land was the safest investment for the wealthy, but trade was the only legal way to acquire a fortune quickly.
frontiers of the empire did not hinder trade. German peddlers crossed the
borders in both directions, bringing amber from the
Baltic and exchanging it for Roman artifacts. However, few Romans actually took
part in foreign commerce. They did not trade directly with Arabia, Africa,
C4 Coinage and Taxes
The deficit spending of later emperors nearly halved the silver value of the coinage.
Merchants throughout the empire and as far away as India used Roman coins, but the monetary system primarily served as a way for the emperors to pay their troops, because the soldiers expected cash. When an emperor had insufficient income, he was forced to raise taxes, seize property, or, as a final measure, melt down existing coins and mint new ones that weighed less or contained smaller amounts of precious metals. Silver coins were a basic medium of exchange during the empire, and one of the major Roman coins a denarius (plural, denarii), equaled four of the smaller silver coins called sesterces. During the reign of Augustus, a silver denarius weighed 5.7 gm (.20 oz) and was 99 percent pure. By ad 193 it had dropped to 4.3 gm (.15 oz) and was only 70 percent pure. The deficit spending of later emperors nearly halved the silver value of the coinage.
Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Ultimele referate adaugate
- Mihai beniuc - „poezii"
- Mihai eminescu - student la berlin
- Mircea Eliade - Mioara Nazdravana (mioriţa)
- Chirita in provintie de Vasile Alecsandri -expunerea subiectului
- Dragoste de viata de Jack London
|Ion Luca Caragiale
- Triumful talentului… (reproducere) de Ion Luca Caragiale
- Fantasticul in proza lui Mircea Eliade - La tiganci
- „Personalitate creatoare” si „figura a spiritului creator” eminescian
- Enigma Otiliei de George Calinescu - geneza, subiectul si tema romanului
- Arta literara in romanul Ion, - Liviu Rebreanu