PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION - PHILOSOPHICAL REFINED CONCLUSIONS referat





PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION ON CHRISTENSEN ET AL.'S PROPOSED EXPLANATION OF SCHIZOPHRENIA AND THE EMERGENCE OF PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS


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In the explanation of this facts, Christensen et al. related many scientific findings and made some explanatory hypothesis about some possible causes (see Christensen et al., 2004). I will represent only the intelligible core of their explanatory proposal.





The retroviral activation in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of some patients with schizophrenia, during acute exacerbations (Karlsson et al., 2001), may cause, consider Christensen et al., an inflamatory process in brain's white matter.


This inflamatory process can be folowed by the activation of a glutamatergic state in brain to which oligodendrocites, specialized glia that encircle axons with myelin, are very sensitive.


This hyper-glutamatergic state is considered as being toxical.


The ultimate consequence of this toxicity, consider Christensen et al., may be the decrease of the number of oligodendroglia (Orlovskaya et al., 2000) and of the physiological alteration of myelination in patients with schizophrenia, as were suggested by many studies (Buchsbaum et al., 1998; Lim et al., 1999 and Foong et al., 2000, Lim et al., 1999, Pettegrew et al., 1991 and Fukuzako et al., 1999).


The disruptions of myelin integrity alter, decreases, the velocity of transmission of information traversing some myelinated neuronal networks.


This decrease causes the dyssynchrony of the reverberating networks integrating perception, thought and action, and thereby the emergence of poorly processed perceptions, disconnected thought processes, and dys-integrated behavior.


The same dyssynchrony disrupts the elements of perception, attention, complex processing of information, and behavior in schizophrenia (Miller, 2000).


PHILOSOPHICAL REFINED CONCLUSIONS


The relevance for the philosophy of scientific explanation


The type of explanation that was used by the scientist was clearly causal. Is their explanation a deduction of an explanandum from a background theory? Is their explanation a deduction of an explanandum from a law?


Is their proposed explanation a deduction from a causal law? Fundamentaly we saw at least causal chain/chains. In some places of the chain the causes are only possible or hypothetized. Phychopatologies are the final results-effects of some physiologiccal processes or causal chains. We are confronted here with a complexity. But, however, I do not want to discredit as others the rational core of the Hemple's model of explanation. The rationality from every valide explanation is a logical one. But the subsumptory statement/statements have to be causal. After the whole chausal chain/chains that underlies/underly schizophrenia will be completely and certainly known, we will can subsume the individual causal chains implied in the individual illness under it. The universal form of the causal chain which underlies schizophrenia will be subsumed under the laws of physics and chemistry altogether with some initial conditions. At a higher place is the law or the principle of causality. The causality itself depends on the nature of substance of the material and spatial universe.




ON MIND


The psychological effects or symptoms od schizoprenia are poorly processed and partial disrupted perception, attention, thought, and action.


All this conscious effects are caused mainly by dyssyncrony of the activity of the reverberating myelinated neuronal networks. The normal psychic implies aproper correlation between perception, thought, action. This correlation is favoured by a syncrony. And, the syncrony is made possible by a proper speed at the level of neurotransmission.


Mind implies interneuronal communication and therefore intra and inter neuronal motion. In every state the brain generates waves of spikes (a , b , g ). The speed of activity of brain is bigger in counscious states than in unconscious states. The functional properties of the neuron are caused by its structure. The capacities of brain are caused by the types, number, and properties of its cells and also by their structures. Mind implies mainly reactivity to external influences, processing of its reactions, authonomous and activity processing, and stimulation of muscles; that is, this capacities. Consciousness is both an output and a space/field of authonomous but causal processing and a proper speed.


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Reference


Christensen J., Holcomb J., and Garver D.L.,: 2004, State-related changes in cerebral white matter may underlie psychosis exacerbation, Neurobiology of aging.











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