Gramatica limbii engleze - proiect complex - pe lectii - substantivul, adjectivul, verbul, pronumele, numeralul, adverbul, timpurile, conjugarea referat






 
 Lectia 1: Substantivul
 
 
 
 
Bun venit la cursul de Gramatica Limbii Engleze !
1.1 Felul substantivelor
Substantivele in limba engleza se pot imparti in patru categorii:
  • substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp
  • substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary
  • substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy
  • substantive colective: crowd, group, team
1.2. Genul
Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin:
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog
Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin:
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe
Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they):
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby
22473nmn67rkk2v Exceptii: tarile, navele, in majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin.
Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra in aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe:
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor, profesoara).
Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin:
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, dog - bitch, bull - cow, king - queen
1.3. Numarul
Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte.
  • Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife, world, storm
  • Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: cat+s=cats, day+s=days, world+s=worlds
  • Pluralul substantivelor teminate in ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza adaugand es la singular.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: church+es=churches, bush+es=bushes, class+es=classes, potato+es=potatoes, bush+es=bushes, box+es=boxes
1.3.1. Pluralul neregulat
  • Substantive terminate in consoana+y fac pluralul in ies:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies
  • Unele substantive terminate in o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos
  • Unele substantive terminate in f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea in ves.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves, wolf - wolves
    22473nmn67rkk2v Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf - wharfs/ wharves
  • Cateva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth
  • Pluralul substantivului child este children.
  • Unele substantive raman identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series, sheep, species, fish
1.3.2 Pluralul substantivelor compuse
  • In cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvant va trece la plural.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents
    22473nmn67rkk2v Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants
  • In cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv, substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up
  • Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: MPs (Members of Parliament), VIPs (very important persons)
1.4. Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns)
Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate, obiecte puternic individualizate, notiuni abstracte.
  • Nume de substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone, wood
  • Abstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help, information, news, beauty, experience, horror, knowledge, friendship, theory, literature
  • Alte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage, parking, weather
Substantivele unice sunt intotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular:
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: This coffee is cold. The weather was dreadful.
Nu sunt precedate de a/an; pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some, any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc.
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: I do not want any help. I need some information. This slice of bread is hard. The piece of advice you gave me helped.
Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara, astfel devenind substantive comune si comportandu-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular, pot avea plural).
Sens Unic / Sens Comun
Her hair is black. (Parul ei este negru.)
22473nmn67rkk2v She found a hair in the milk. (A gasit un fir de par in lapte.)
22473nmn67rkk2v Their house was made of wood. (Casa lor este din lemn.)
22473nmn67rkk2v We picnicked in the woods. (Am mers la picnic in padure.)
1.5. Forma posesiva
  • Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina in s:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: a child's voice, the people's choice, a horse's mouth, women's clothes
  • Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina in s.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: a boys' school, the Johnsons' residence
  • Numele proprii terminate in s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('), fie 's
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car, Yeats's / Yeats' poems
  • In cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvant va primi 's
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: My father-in-law's guitar, Henry the Eighth's wives
  • 's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: The CEO's assistant, the PM's speech
  • Forma posesiva se foloseste in general cand vorbim de oameni, animale, tari. Se foloseste de asemenea in urmatoarele cazuri:
    • In expresii temporale
      22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: yesterday's newspaper, in five years' time, ten minutes' break
    • In expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth
      22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: ten dollars' worth of bananas, a shilling's worth of stamps
    • In alte expresii uzuale:
      22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: for heaven's sake, a winter's day, the water's edge, the plane's wings, the train's departure
  • In cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci cand sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta).
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). The kids went to Bobby's (house).
  • Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house
    22473nmn67rkk2v I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book.
 

1. Scrie femininul urmatoarelor substantive:
22473nmn67rkk2v actor, driver, elephant, guide, son, bull, nephew, cousin, dog, waiter, camel, manager, uncle, lion, bachelor (burlac, absolvent), widower, assistant, host, snake, player, bridegroom, doctor, teacher.

2. Scrie pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:
22473nmn67rkk2v knife, baby, child, country, aircraft, foot, key, kilo, woman, leaf, loaf, man, photo, piano, sheep, shelf, storey (palier, cat), story, thief, tooth, wife.

3. Rescrie urmatoarele constructii conform modelului:
22473nmn67rkk2v The luggage belonging to the travelers - The traveler's luggage
22473nmn67rkk2v The room belonging to the child -
22473nmn67rkk2v The clothes belonging to the children -
22473nmn67rkk2v The car belonging to Mr. Smith -
22473nmn67rkk2v The luggage belonging to the VIP -
22473nmn67rkk2v The flat belonging to her son-in-law -
22473nmn67rkk2v The canteen used by the workers -

Important !

Va rog sa cititi cu atentie Ghidul studentului la adresa: http://www.academiaonline.ro/index.php/InfoCentru/Ghidul_Studentului,

special conceput pentru a raspunde tuturor intrebarilor noilor cursanti legate de modul de functionare si de invatare in cadrul Academiei Online.

Discuta si comenteaza impreuna cu colegii si tutorul exercitiile fiecarei lectii si probleme de gramatica in spatiul Seminariilor Online. Nu uita ca poti accesa doar lectiile deschise saptamanal.

 
 
Lectia 2: Articolul
 
 
 
 
 
Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete inteles intr-o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie insotit de un determinant substantival. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:
  • Articolul hotarat - the
  • Articolul nehotarat - a / an
  • Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata)
Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba in functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza in fata substantivului determinat.
2.1. Articolul hotarat (the)
Articolul hotarat se foloseste:
  • Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat in contextul respectiv
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.
  • Atunci cand atat vorbitorul cat si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de substantiv, desi nu a mai fost mentionat in context.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: - Where's the bathroom? - It's on the first floor.
  • In propozitii sau fraze in care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: The man we met yesterday at the bus station. The girl in red is her neighbor.
  • Referitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ann is in the garden (the garden of this house).
  • Inaintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first, second, thirds, etc si only:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: the best day, the first week, the last chapter, the only way
  • Inaintea unor adjective pentru a te referi in general la un grup de oameni care au in comun o anumita insusire (sunt frumosi, tineri, batrani, japonezi, etc):
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the Japanese, the British
  • Nume de locuri geografice, oceane, rauri, mari, deserturi, munti, regiuni:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic
  • Se foloseste inaintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii celebre, hoteluri, ziare, orchestre, grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la plural,etc):
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: the National Gallery, the Royal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the Beatles, the Spice Girls, the Guardian, the Telegraph, the Daily, the Titanic, the Tower of London, the House of Parliament, the Smiths
  • Decade, secole, grupe de ani:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: My parents went to University in the seventies.
2.2. Articolul nehotarat (a / an)
Se foloseste a inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o consoana si an inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u)
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an opera
22473nmn67rkk2v Exceptii:
22473nmn67rkk2v   An inainte de un h mut - an hour, an honor.
22473nmn67rkk2v   A inainte de u sau eu atunci cand se pronunta ca you: a European, a university, a unit
Articolul nehotarat se foloseste:
  • Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job.
  • Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Exemple:
    • cu nume de profesii: John is an engineer. Mary is training to be a nurse.
    • cu nationalitati si religii: John is an Englishman. Kate is a Catholic.
    • cu instrumente muzicale: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
    • cu numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday.
    • pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: The mouse had a tiny nose. It was a very strange car
    • cu substantice la singular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: What a bluff! He is such a prodigious young man.
    • atunci cand te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana, echivaleaza cu one: I'd like an orange and two lemons please. The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.
  • Retineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.
2.3. a / an si one
  • Atunci cand numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru singular:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: a / one pound, a / one million pounds
    22473nmn67rkk2v You can take an/ one hour for lunch.
  • Dar a/an si one nu inseamna intotdeauna acelasi lucru:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: A box is no good. (We need a crate not a box).
    22473nmn67rkk2v    One box is no good, we need two boxes.
2.4. Articolul zero
Nu se foloseste articol in urmatoarele cazuri:
Cu nume de tari (la singular)
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Germany is an important economic power.
22473nmn67rkk2v    He's just returned from Argentina.

22473nmn67rkk2v    (Insa: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
  • Cu numele limbilor:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: French is spoken in Tahiti.
    22473nmn67rkk2v English uses many words of Latin origin.
  • Cu numele meselor:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Lunch is at midday.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Dinner is in the evening.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
  • Cu numele persoanelor (la singular):
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: John's coming to the party.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    George King is my uncle.

    22473nmn67rkk2v    (Insa: We're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
  • Cu titluri si nume:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.

    22473nmn67rkk2v    (Insa: the Queen of England, the Pope.)
  • Dupa cazul posesiv format cu 's:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: His sister's car.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Laura's basket.
  • Cu numele profesiilor:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Engineering is a useful career.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    He'll probably go into medicine.
  • Cu nume de magazine:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: I'll get the card at Smith's.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Can you go to Boots for me?
  • Cu ani:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: 1948 was a wonderful year.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Do you remember 1995?
  • Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns):
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Milk is often added to tea in England.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    War is destructive.
  • Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    She lives near Lake Windermere.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Have you visited Long Island?
  • Cu majoritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mijloacele de transport si aeroporturi:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    Can you direct me to Bond Street?
    22473nmn67rkk2v    She lives in Florence.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    They're flying from Heathrow.
  • In unele expresii invariabile:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: by car, at school, at work, at University, in church, in prison, in bed, by train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air (in broadcasting)
 

1. Completeaza cu a sau an acolo unde este cazul:
22473nmn67rkk2v Bill is ____ author. He writes ___ travel books. He makes ____ lot of money. We had ____ lunch with him yesterday. It was ____ excellent lunch. The meal cost him ____ hundred and ____ fifty pounds. What ____ expensive restaurant! He gave the waiter ____ twenty pounds. That was ____ good tip.



2. Alege a sau the:
22473nmn67rkk2v One day we set out to climb (…) a/the highest hill in the area. The campers in (…) a/the next tent lent us their map. They told us to follow one of (…) a/the routes marked on (…) a/the map. But Tom said that he was sure that there was (…) a/the better way. (…) A/the way that we chose was so steep that we had to stop for (…) a/the long rest on the way up. But we got to (…) a/the top in (…) a/the end.

3. Completeaza cu the acolo unde este cazul:
22473nmn67rkk2v We have ____ soup for ____supper. After ____ meal Tom and I play ____ chess. Bill prefers ____ cards. ____ game he likes best is bridge. He says that ____ chess requires ____ patience and he is not patient. He also says that ____life is too short to waste in this way.

 
 
Lectia 3: Adjectivul
 
 
 
 
 
3.1. Forma adjectivului
Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu isi schimba forma in functie de gen sau numar.
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes.
Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:
22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.
3.2. Pozitia adjectivului
  • De obicei adjectivul se aseaza in fata substantivului determinat:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: A good movie.
  • Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: The movie is good.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    You seem upset.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    This cheese tastes different.
  • Dupa substantiv in expresii fixe:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial
  • Cateva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai in fata substantivului determinat:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    That poor woman was living in a garage.
  • Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: He's asleep.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    I'm alone.
  • Unele adjective isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate in fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter)
    22473nmn67rkk2v    They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)
    22473nmn67rkk2v    I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)
    22473nmn67rkk2v    The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)
    22473nmn67rkk2v    The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)
3.3. Functiile adjectivului
Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima:
  • Sentimente sau calitati:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: They make an original couple.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    She is a single mother.
  • Nationalitatea sau originea:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas.
  • Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: The table is long.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    The steel tray was a gift.
  • Varsta:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    He is still very young, almost a boy.
  • Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    That boy is too tall.
  • Culoarea:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.
  • Materie / material:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.
  • Forma:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: A rectangular envelope.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    A round table.
  • Judecati, pareri sau opinii:
    22473nmn67rkk2v Ex.: Grammar is fascinating.
    22473nmn67rkk2v    The show was entertaining.
3.4. Ordinea adjectivelor
Atunci cand se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material
Value/opinion
delicious, lovely, charming
Size
small, huge, tiny
Age/Temperature
old, hot, young, little
Shape
round, square, rectangular
Colour
red, blonde, black
Origin
Swedish, Victorian, Chinese
Material
plastic, wooden, silver

 





Exemple:
22473nmn67rkk2v    a green round plastic bucket
22473nmn67rkk2v    an elegant little French clock
22473nmn67rkk2v    a small round wooden table

3.5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor

3.5.1. Formarea comparativului si superlativului

Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (inalt), comparativ (mai inalt), superlativ (cel mai inalt). In limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:

Numar de silabe (Pozitiv)
Comparativ
Superlativ
o silaba
+ -er
+ -est
tall
taller
tallest
  Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala:
fat
fatter
fattest
big
bigger
biggest
sad
sadder
saddest
doua silabe










Ultimele referate adaugate
Mihai Beniuc
   - Mihai beniuc - „poezii"
Mihai Eminescu Mihai Eminescu
   - Mihai eminescu - student la berlin
Mircea Eliade Mircea Eliade
   - Mircea Eliade - Mioara Nazdravana (mioriţa)
Vasile Alecsandri Vasile Alecsandri
   - Chirita in provintie de Vasile Alecsandri -expunerea subiectului
Emil Girlenu Emil Girlenu
   - Dragoste de viata de Jack London
Ion Luca Caragiale Ion Luca Caragiale
   - Triumful talentului… (reproducere) de Ion Luca Caragiale
Mircea Eliade Mircea Eliade
   - Fantasticul in proza lui Mircea Eliade - La tiganci
Mihai Eminescu Mihai Eminescu
   - „Personalitate creatoare” si „figura a spiritului creator” eminescian
George Calinescu George Calinescu
   - Enigma Otiliei de George Calinescu - geneza, subiectul si tema romanului
Liviu Rebreanu Liviu Rebreanu
   - Arta literara in romanul Ion, - Liviu Rebreanu

















Cauta referat
Scriitori romani